Possibilities and limitations of ion implantation in diamond, and comparison with other doping methods
Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky prosp. 53, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation
Diamond is a crystal with extremely strong atomic bonds. It is characterised by very low equilibrium parameters of the solubility and diffusion coefficients of impurities. Ion implantation therefore represents a natural alternative doping method. The published experimental results show that p-type and p+-type layers can be formed by boron ion implantation. Implantation of Li+ and C+ produces n-type layers. Diamond films grown in the presence of phosphorus and sodium can also be electrically conducting. The efficiency of this method of introducing electrically active centres varies strongly with the temperature of diamond during implantation and with the conditions during the subsequent annealing.