Bell’s paradoxes without the introduction of hidden variables
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Physics, Leninskie Gory 1 build. 2, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation
A hidden-variable theory is the traditional, but not unique, basis for constructing various types of Bell’s theorem. The starting point may also be a recognition of the existence of a positive-definite probability distribution function. This assumption alone is used to formulate and prove Bell’s paradoxes of different types. A specific example is used to show that a formal quantum calculation can sometimes give negative values of the joint probabilities that are used in the proof. An attempt is made to identify the physical meaning of this result and an algorithm for determination of negative joint probabilities of this type is proposed.