PACS numbers

Full list of PACS numbers. Show PACS appeared in journal

01.00.00 Communication, education, history, and philosophy

02.00.00 Mathematical methods in physics

03.00.00 Quantum mechanics, field theories, and special relativity

04.00.00 General relativity and gravitation

05.00.00 Statistical physics, thermodynamics, and nonlinear dynamical systems

06.00.00 Metrology, measurements, and laboratory procedures

07.00.00 Instruments, apparatus, and components common to several branches of physics and astronomy

11.00.00 General theory of fields and particles

12.00.00 Specific theories and interaction models; particle systematics

13.00.00 Specific reactions and phenomenology

14.00.00 Properties of specific particles

21.00.00 Nuclear structure

23.00.00 Radioactive decay and in-beam spectroscopy

24.00.00 Nuclear reactions: general

25.00.00 Nuclear reactions: specific reactions

26.00.00 Nuclear astrophysics

27.00.00 Properties of specific nuclei listed by mass ranges

28.00.00 Nuclear engineering and nuclear power studies

29.00.00 Experimental methods and instrumentation for elementary-particle and nuclear physics

31.00.00 Electronic structure of atoms and molecules: theory

  • 31.10.+z Theory of electronic structure, electronic transitions, and chemical binding
  • 31.15.−p Calculations and mathematical techniques in atomic and molecular physics
  • 31.15.A− Ab initio calculations
  • 31.15.Ar Ab initio calculations
  • 31.15.B− Approximate calculations
  • 31.15.Bs Statistical model calculations (including Thomas-Fermi and Thomas-Fermi-Dirac models)
  • 31.15.Ct Semi-empirical and empirical calculations (differential overlap, Huckel, PPP methods, etc.)
  • 31.15.Dv Coupled-cluster theory
  • 31.15.E− Density-functional theory
  • 31.15.Ew Density-functional theory
  • 31.15.Fx Finite-difference schemes
  • 31.15.Gy Semiclassical methods
  • 31.15.Hz Group theory
  • 31.15.Ja Hyperspherical methods
  • 31.15.Kb Path-integral methods
  • 31.15.Lc Quasiparticle methods
  • 31.15.Md Perturbation theory
  • 31.15.Ne Self-consistent-field methods
  • 31.15.Pf Variational techniques
  • 31.15.Qg Molecular dynamics and other numerical methods
  • 31.15.Rh Valence bond calculations
  • 31.15.V− Electron correlation calculations for atoms, ions and molecules
  • 31.15.X− Alternative approaches
  • 31.15.ac High-precision calculations for few-electron (or few-body) atomic systems
  • 31.15.ae Electronic structure and bonding characteristics
  • 31.15.ag Excitation energies and lifetimes; oscillator strengths
  • 31.15.aj Relativistic corrections, spin-orbit effects, fine structure; hyperfine structure
  • 31.15.am Relativistic configuration interaction (CI) and many-body perturbation calculations
  • 31.15.ap Polarizabilities and other atomic and molecular properties
  • 31.15.aq Strongly correlated electron systems: generalized tight-binding method
  • 31.15.at Molecule transport characteristics; molecular dynamics; electronic structure of polymers
  • 31.15.bt Statistical model calculations (including Thomas-Fermi and Thomas-Fermi-Dirac models)
  • 31.15.bu Semi-empirical and empirical calculations (differential overlap, Hückel, PPP methods, etc.)
  • 31.15.bw Coupled-cluster theory
  • 31.15.ec Hohenberg-Kohn theorem and formal mathematical properties, completeness theorems
  • 31.15.ee Time-dependent density functional theory
  • 31.15.eg Exchange-correlation functionals (in current density functional theory)
  • 31.15.ej Spin-density functionals
  • 31.15.em Corrections for core-spin polarization, surface effects, etc.
  • 31.15.ep Variational particle-number approach
  • 31.15.es Applications of density-functional theory (e.g., to electronic structure and stability; defect formation; dielectric properties, susceptibilities; viscoelastic coefficients; Rydberg transition frequencies)
  • 31.15.ve Electron correlation calculations for atoms and ions: ground state
  • 31.15.vj Electron correlation calculations for atoms and ions: excited states
  • 31.15.vn Electron correlation calculations for diatomic molecules
  • 31.15.vq Electron correlation calculations for polyatomic molecules
  • 31.15.xf Finite-difference schemes
  • 31.15.xg Semiclassical methods
  • 31.15.xh Group-theoretical methods
  • 31.15.xj Hyperspherical methods
  • 31.15.xk Path-integral methods
  • 31.15.xm Quasiparticle methods
  • 31.15.xp Perturbation theory
  • 31.15.xr Self-consistent-field methods
  • 31.15.xt Variational techniques
  • 31.15.xv Molecular dynamics and other numerical methods
  • 31.15.xw Valence bond calculations
  • 31.25.−v Electron correlation calculations for atoms and molecules
  • 31.25.Eb Electron correlation calculations for atoms and ions: ground state
  • 31.25.Jf Electron correlation calculations for atoms and ions: excited states
  • 31.25.Nj Electron correlation calculations for diatomic molecules
  • 31.25.Qm Electron correlation calculations for polyatomic molecules
  • 31.30.−i Corrections to electronic structure
  • 31.30.Gs Hyperfine interactions and isotope effects
  • 31.30.J− Relativistic and quantum electrodynamic (QED) effects in atoms, molecules, and ions
  • 31.30.Jv Relativistic and quantum electrodynamic effects in atoms and molecules
  • 31.30.jc Relativistic corrections to atomic structure and properties
  • 31.30.jd Relativistic corrections due to negative-energy states or processes
  • 31.30.jf QED calculations of level energies, transition frequencies, fine structure intervals (radiative corrections, self-energy, vacuum polarization, etc.)
  • 31.30.jg QED corrections to parity nonconserving transition amplitudes and CP violations
  • 31.30.jh QED corrections to long-range and weak interactions
  • 31.30.jn QED corrections to electric dipole moments and other atomic properties
  • 31.30.jp Electron electric dipole moment
  • 31.30.jr QED corrections
  • 31.30.js Corrections to bound-electron g factor
  • 31.30.jx Nonrelativistic limits of Dirac-Fock calculations
  • 31.30.jy Higher-order effective Hamiltonians
  • 31.30.jz Decay rates of hydrogen-antihydrogen quasimolecules
  • 31.50.−x Potential energy surfaces
  • 31.50.Bc Potential energy surfaces for ground electronic states
  • 31.50.Df Potential energy surfaces for excited electronic states
  • 31.50.Gh Surface crossings, non-adiabatic couplings
  • 31.70.−f Effects of atomic and molecular interactions on electronic structure
  • 31.70.Dk Environmental and solvent effects
  • 31.70.Hq Time-dependent phenomena: excitation and relaxation processes, and reaction rates
  • 31.70.Ks Molecular solids
  • 31.90.+s Other topics in the theory of the electronic structure of atoms and molecules

32.00.00 Atomic properties and interactions with photons

33.00.00 Molecular properties and interactions with photons

34.00.00 Atomic and molecular collision processes and interactions

36.00.00 Exotic atoms and molecules; macromolecules; clusters

37.00.00 Mechanical control of atoms, molecules, and ions

  • 37.10.−x Atom, molecule, and ion cooling methods
  • 37.10.De Atom cooling methods
  • 37.10.Gh Atom traps and guides
  • 37.10.Jk Atoms in optical lattices
  • 37.10.Mn Slowing and cooling of molecules
  • 37.10.Pq Trapping of molecules
  • 37.10.Rs Ion cooling
  • 37.10.Ty Ion trapping
  • 37.10.Vz Mechanical effects of light on atoms, molecules, and ions
  • 37.20.+j Atomic and molecular beam sources and techniques
  • 37.25.+k Atom interferometry techniques
  • 37.30.+i Atoms, molecules, and ions in cavities
  • 37.90.+j Other topics in mechanical control of atoms, molecules, and ions

39.00.00 Instrumentation and techniques for atomic and molecular physics

41.00.00 Electromagnetism; electron and ion optics

42.00.00 Optics

43.00.00 Acoustics

  • 43.05.−k Acoustical Society of America
  • 43.05.Bp Constitution and bylaws
  • 43.05.Dr History
  • 43.05.Ft Honorary members
  • 43.05.Gv Publications, ARLO, Echoes, ASA Web page, electronic archives and references
  • 43.05.Hw Meetings
  • 43.05.Ky Members and membership lists, personal notes, fellows
  • 43.05.Ma Administrative committee activities
  • 43.05.Nb Technical committee activities; Technical Council
  • 43.05.Pc Prizes, medals, and other awards
  • 43.05.Re Regional chapters
  • 43.05.Sf Obituaries
  • 43.10.−a General
  • 43.10.Ce Conferences, lectures, and announcements
  • 43.10.Df Other acoustical societies and their publications, online journals, and other electronic publications
  • 43.10.Eg Biographical, historical, and personal notes
  • 43.10.Gi Editorials, Forum
  • 43.10.Hj Books and book reviews
  • 43.10.Jk Bibliographies
  • 43.10.Km Patents
  • 43.10.Ln Surveys and tutorial papers relating to acoustics research; tutorial papers on applied acoustics
  • 43.10.Mq Tutorial papers of historical and philosophical nature
  • 43.10.Nq News with relevance to acoustics, nonacoustical theories of interest to acoustics
  • 43.10.Pr Information technology, internet, nonacoustical devices of interest to acoustics
  • 43.10.Qs Notes relating to acoustics as a profession
  • 43.10.Sv Education in acoustics, tutorial papers of interest to acoustics educators
  • 43.10.Vx Errata
  • 43.15.+s Standards
  • 43.20.+g General linear acoustics
  • 43.20.−f General linear acoustics
  • 43.20.Bi Mathematical theory of wave propagation
  • 43.20.Dk Ray acoustics
  • 43.20.El Reflection, refraction, diffraction of acoustic waves
  • 43.20.Fn Scattering of acoustic waves
  • 43.20.Gp Reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference, and scattering of elastic and poroelastic waves
  • 43.20.Hq Velocity and attenuation of acoustic waves
  • 43.20.Jr Velocity and attenuation of elastic and poroelastic waves
  • 43.20.Ks Standing waves, resonance, normal modes
  • 43.20.Mv Waveguides, wave propagation in tubes and ducts
  • 43.20.Px Transient radiation and scattering
  • 43.20.Rz Steady-state radiation from sources, impedance, radiation patterns, boundary element methods
  • 43.20.Tb Interaction of vibrating structures with surrounding medium
  • 43.20.Wd Analogies
  • 43.20.Ye Measurement methods and instrumentation
  • 43.25.+y Nonlinear acoustics
  • 43.25.−x Nonlinear acoustics
  • 43.25.Ba Parameters of nonlinearity of the medium
  • 43.25.Cb Macrosonic propagation, finite amplitude sound; shock waves
  • 43.25.Dc Nonlinear acoustics of solids
  • 43.25.Ed Effect of nonlinearity on velocity and attenuation
  • 43.25.Fe Effect of nonlinearity on acoustic surface waves
  • 43.25.Gf Standing waves; resonance
  • 43.25.Hg Interaction of intense sound waves with noise
  • 43.25.Jh Reflection, refraction, interference, scattering, and diffraction of intense sound waves
  • 43.25.Lj Parametric arrays, interaction of sound with sound, virtual sources
  • 43.25.Nm Acoustic streaming
  • 43.25.Qp Radiation pressure
  • 43.25.Rq Solitons, chaos
  • 43.25.Ts Nonlinear acoustical and dynamical systems
  • 43.25.Uv Acoustic levitation
  • 43.25.Vt Intense sound sources
  • 43.25.Yw Nonlinear acoustics of bubbly liquids
  • 43.25.Zx Measurement methods and instrumentation for nonlinear acoustics
  • 43.28.+h Aeroacoustics and atmospheric sound
  • 43.28.−g Aeroacoustics and atmospheric sound
  • 43.28.Bj Mechanisms affecting sound propagation in air, sound speed in the air
  • 43.28.Dm Infrasound and acoustic-gravity waves
  • 43.28.En Interaction of sound with ground surfaces, ground cover and topography, acoustic impedance of outdoor surfaces
  • 43.28.Fp Outdoor sound propagation through a stationary atmosphere, meteorological factors
  • 43.28.Gq Outdoor sound propagation and scattering in a turbulent atmosphere, and in non-uniform flow fields
  • 43.28.Hr Outdoor sound sources
  • 43.28.Js Numerical models for outdoor propagation
  • 43.28.Kt Aerothermoacoustics and combustion acoustics
  • 43.28.Lv Statistical characteristics of sound fields and propagation parameters
  • 43.28.Mw Shock and blast waves, sonic boom
  • 43.28.Py Interaction of fluid motion and sound, Doppler effect, and sound in flow ducts
  • 43.28.Ra Generation of sound by fluid flow, aerodynamic sound and turbulence
  • 43.28.Tc Sound-in-air measurements, methods and instrumentation for location, navigation, altimetry, and sound ranging
  • 43.28.Vd Measurement methods and instrumentation to determine or evaluate atmospheric parameters, winds, turbulence, temperatures, and pollutants in air
  • 43.28.We Measurement methods and instrumentation for remote sensing and for inverse problems
  • 43.30.+m Underwater sound
  • 43.30.−k Underwater sound
  • 43.30.Bp Normal mode propagation of sound in water
  • 43.30.Cq Ray propagation of sound in water
  • 43.30.Dr Hybrid and asymptotic propagation theories, related experiments
  • 43.30.Es Velocity, attenuation, refraction, and diffraction in water, Doppler effect
  • 43.30.Ft Volume scattering
  • 43.30.Gv Backscattering, echoes, and reverberation in water due to combinations of boundaries
  • 43.30.Hw Rough interface scattering
  • 43.30.Jx Radiation from objects vibrating under water, acoustic and mechanical impedance
  • 43.30.Ky Structures and materials for absorbing sound in water; propagation in fluid-filled permeable material
  • 43.30.Lz Underwater applications of nonlinear acoustics; explosions
  • 43.30.Ma Acoustics of sediments; ice covers, viscoelastic media; seismic underwater acoustics
  • 43.30.Nb Noise in water; generation mechanisms and characteristics of the field
  • 43.30.Pc Ocean parameter estimation by acoustical methods; remote sensing; imaging, inversion, acoustic tomography
  • 43.30.Qd Global scale acoustics; ocean basin thermometry, transbasin acoustics
  • 43.30.Re Signal coherence or fluctuation due to sound propagation/scattering in the ocean
  • 43.30.Sf Acoustical detection of marine life; passive and active
  • 43.30.Tg Navigational instruments using underwater sound
  • 43.30.Vh Active sonar systems
  • 43.30.Wi Passive sonar systems and algorithms, matched field processing in underwater acoustics
  • 43.30.Xm Underwater measurement and calibration instrumentation and procedures
  • 43.30.Yj Transducers and transducer arrays for underwater sound; transducer calibration
  • 43.30.Zk Experimental modeling
  • 43.35.+d Ultrasonics, quantum acoustics, and physical effects of sound
  • 43.35.−c Ultrasonics, quantum acoustics, and physical effects of sound
  • 43.35.Ae Ultrasonic velocity, dispersion, scattering, diffraction, and attenuation in gases
  • 43.35.Bf Ultrasonic velocity, dispersion, scattering, diffraction, and attenuation in liquids, liquid crystals, suspensions, and emulsions
  • 43.35.Cg Ultrasonic velocity, dispersion, scattering, diffraction, and attenuation in solids; elastic constants
  • 43.35.Dh Pretersonics (sound of frequency above 10 GHz); Brillouin scattering
  • 43.35.Ei Acoustic cavitation in liquids
  • 43.35.Fj Ultrasonic relaxation processes in gases, liquids, and solids
  • 43.35.Gk Phonons in crystal lattices, quantum acoustics
  • 43.35.Hl Sonoluminescence
  • 43.35.Kp Plasma acoustics
  • 43.35.Lq Low-temperature acoustics, sound in liquid helium
  • 43.35.Mr Acoustics of viscoelastic materials
  • 43.35.Ns Acoustical properties of thin films
  • 43.35.Pt Surface waves in solids and liquids
  • 43.35.Rw Magnetoacoustic effect; oscillations and resonance
  • 43.35.Sx Acoustooptical effects, optoacoustics, acoustical visualization, acoustical microscopy, and acoustical holography
  • 43.35.Ty Other physical effects of sound
  • 43.35.Ud Thermoacoustics, high temperature acoustics, photoacoustic effect
  • 43.35.Vz Chemical effects of ultrasound
  • 43.35.Wa Biological effects of ultrasound, ultrasonic tomography
  • 43.35.Xd Nuclear acoustical resonance, acoustical magnetic resonance
  • 43.35.Yb Ultrasonic instrumentation and measurement techniques
  • 43.35.Zc Use of ultrasonics in nondestructive testing, industrial processes, and industrial products
  • 43.38.+n Transduction; acoustical devices for the generation and reproduction of sound
  • 43.38.−p Transduction; acoustical devices for the generation and reproduction of sound
  • 43.38.Ar Transducing principles, materials, and structures: general
  • 43.38.Bs Electrostatic transducers
  • 43.38.Ct Magnetostrictive transducers
  • 43.38.Dv Electromagnetic and electrodynamic transducers
  • 43.38.Ew Feedback transducers
  • 43.38.Fx Piezoelectric and ferroelectric transducers
  • 43.38.Gy Semiconductor transducers
  • 43.38.Hz Transducer arrays, acoustic interaction effects in arrays
  • 43.38.Ja Loudspeakers and horns, practical sound sources
  • 43.38.Kb Microphones and their calibration
  • 43.38.Lc Amplifiers, attenuators, and audio controls
  • 43.38.Md Sound recording and reproducing systems, general concepts
  • 43.38.Ne Mechanical, optical, and photographic recording and reproducing systems
  • 43.38.Pf Hydroacoustic and hydraulic transducers
  • 43.38.Qg Magnetic and electrostatic recording and reproducing systems
  • 43.38.Rh Surface acoustic wave transducers
  • 43.38.Si Telephones, earphones, sound power telephones, and intercommunication systems
  • 43.38.Tj Public address systems, sound-reinforcement systems
  • 43.38.Vk Stereophonic reproduction
  • 43.38.Wl Broadcasting (radio and television)
  • 43.38.Yn Impulse transducers
  • 43.38.Zp Acoustooptic and photoacoustic transducers
  • 43.40.+s Structural acoustics and vibration
  • 43.40.−r Structural acoustics and vibration
  • 43.40.At Experimental and theoretical studies of vibrating systems
  • 43.40.Cw Vibrations of strings, rods, and beams
  • 43.40.Dx Vibrations of membranes and plates
  • 43.40.Ey Vibrations of shells
  • 43.40.Fz Acoustic scattering by elastic structures
  • 43.40.Ga Nonlinear vibration
  • 43.40.Hb Random vibration
  • 43.40.Jc Shock and shock reduction and absorption
  • 43.40.Kd Impact and impact reduction, mechanical transients
  • 43.40.Le Techniques for nondestructive evaluation and monitoring, acoustic emission
  • 43.40.Ng Effects of vibration and shock on biological systems, including man
  • 43.40.Ph Seismology and geophysical prospecting; seismographs
  • 43.40.Qi Effect of sound on structures, fatigue; spatial statistics of structural vibration
  • 43.40.Rj Radiation from vibrating structures into fluid media
  • 43.40.Sk Inverse problems in structural acoustics and vibration
  • 43.40.Tm Vibration isolators, attenuators, and dampers
  • 43.40.Vn Active vibration control
  • 43.40.Yq Instrumentation and techniques for tests and measurement relating to shock and vibration, including vibration pickups, indicators, and generators, mechanical impedance
  • 43.50.+y Noise: its effects and control
  • 43.50.−x Noise: its effects and control
  • 43.50.Ba Noisiness: rating methods and criteria
  • 43.50.Cb Noise spectra, determination of sound power
  • 43.50.Ed Noise generation
  • 43.50.Fe Noise masking systems
  • 43.50.Gf Noise control at source: redesign, application of absorptive materials and reactive elements, mufflers, noise silencers, noise barriers, and attenuators, etc.
  • 43.50.Hg Noise control at the ear
  • 43.50.Jh Noise in buildings and general machinery noise
  • 43.50.Ki Active noise control
  • 43.50.Lj Transportation noise sources: air, road, rail, and marine vehicles
  • 43.50.Nm Aerodynamic and jet noise
  • 43.50.Pn Impulse noise and noise due to impact
  • 43.50.Qp Effects of noise on man and society
  • 43.50.Rq Environmental noise, measurement, analysis, statistical characteristics
  • 43.50.Sr Community noise, noise zoning, by-laws, and legislation
  • 43.50.Vt Topographical and meteorological factors in noise propagation
  • 43.50.Yw Instrumentation and techniques for noise measurement and analysis
  • 43.55.+p Architectural acoustics
  • 43.55.−n Architectural acoustics
  • 43.55.Br Room acoustics: theory and experiment; reverberation, normal modes, diffusion, transient and steady-state response
  • 43.55.Cs Stationary response of rooms to noise; spatial statistics of room response; random testing
  • 43.55.Dt Sound absorption in enclosures: theory and measurement; use of absorption in offices, commercial and domestic spaces
  • 43.55.Ev Sound absorption properties of materials: theory and measurement of sound absorption coefficients; acoustic impedance and admittance
  • 43.55.Fw Auditorium and enclosure design
  • 43.55.Gx Studies of existing auditoria and enclosures
  • 43.55.Hy Subjective effects in room acoustics, speech in rooms
  • 43.55.Jz Sound-reinforcement systems for rooms and enclosures
  • 43.55.Ka Computer simulation of acoustics in enclosures, modeling
  • 43.55.Lb Electrical simulation of reverberation
  • 43.55.Mc Room acoustics measuring instruments, computer measurement of room properties
  • 43.55.Nd Reverberation room design: theory, applications to measurements of sound absorption, transmission loss, sound power
  • 43.55.Pe Anechoic chamber design, wedges
  • 43.55.Rg Sound transmission through walls and through ducts: theory and measurement
  • 43.55.Ti Sound-isolating structures, values of transmission coefficients
  • 43.55.Vj Vibration-isolating supports in building acoustics
  • 43.55.Wk Damping of panels
  • 43.58.+z Acoustical measurements and instrumentation
  • 43.58.−e Acoustical measurements and instrumentation (see also specific sections for specialized instrumentation)
  • 43.58.Bh Acoustic impedance measurement
  • 43.58.Dj Sound velocity
  • 43.58.Fm Sound level meters, level recorders, sound pressure, particle velocity, and sound intensity measurements, meters, and controllers
  • 43.58.Gn Acoustic impulse analyzers and measurements
  • 43.58.Hp Tuning forks, frequency standards; frequency measuring and recording instruments; time standards and chronographs
  • 43.58.Jq Wave and tone synthesizers
  • 43.58.Kr Spectrum and frequency analyzers and filters; acoustical and electrical oscillographs; photoacoustic spectrometers; acoustical delay lines and resonators
  • 43.58.Ls Acoustical lenses and microscopes
  • 43.58.Mt Phase meters
  • 43.58.Pw Rayleigh disks
  • 43.58.Ry Distortion: frequency, nonlinear, phase, and transient; measurement of distortion
  • 43.58.Ta Computers and computer programs in acoustics
  • 43.58.Vb Calibration of acoustical devices and systems
  • 43.58.Wc Electrical and mechanical oscillators
  • 43.60.+d Acoustic signal processing
  • 43.60.−c Acoustic signal processing
  • 43.60.Ac Theory of acoustic signal processing
  • 43.60.Bf Acoustic signal detection and classification, applications to control systems
  • 43.60.Cg Statistical properties of signals and noise
  • 43.60.Dh Signal processing for communications: telephony and telemetry, sound pickup and reproduction, multimedia
  • 43.60.Ek Acoustic signal coding, morphology, and transformation
  • 43.60.Fg Acoustic array systems and processing, beam-forming
  • 43.60.Gk Space-time signal processing, other than matched field processing
  • 43.60.Hj Time-frequency signal processing, wavelets
  • 43.60.Jn Source localization and parameter estimation
  • 43.60.Kx Matched field processing
  • 43.60.Lq Acoustic imaging, displays, pattern recognition, feature extraction
  • 43.60.Mn Adaptive processing
  • 43.60.Np Acoustic signal processing techniques for neural nets and learning systems
  • 43.60.Pt Signal processing techniques for acoustic inverse problems
  • 43.60.Qv Signal processing instrumentation, integrated systems, smart transducers, devices and architectures, displays and interfaces for acoustic systems
  • 43.60.Rw Remote sensing methods, acoustic tomography
  • 43.60.Sx Acoustic holography
  • 43.60.Tj Wave front reconstruction, acoustic time-reversal, and phase conjugation
  • 43.60.Uv Model-based signal processing
  • 43.60.Vx Acoustic sensing and acquisition
  • 43.60.Wy Non-stationary signal analysis, non-linear systems, and higher order
  • 43.64.+r Physiological acoustics
  • 43.64.−q Physiological acoustics
  • 43.64.Bt Models and theories of the auditory system
  • 43.64.Dw Anatomy of the cochlea and auditory nerve
  • 43.64.Fy Anatomy of the auditory central nervous system
  • 43.64.Gz Biochemistry and pharmacology of the auditory system
  • 43.64.Ha Acoustical properties of the outer ear; middle-ear mechanics and reflex
  • 43.64.Jb Otoacoustic emissions
  • 43.64.Kc Cochlear mechanics
  • 43.64.Ld Physiology of hair cells
  • 43.64.Me Effects of electrical stimulation, cochlear implant
  • 43.64.Nf Cochlear electrophysiology
  • 43.64.Pg Electrophysiology of the auditory nerve
  • 43.64.Qh Electrophysiology of the auditory central nervous system
  • 43.64.Ri Evoked responses to sounds
  • 43.64.Sj Neural responses to speech
  • 43.64.Tk Physiology of sound generation and detection by animals
  • 43.64.Vm Physiology of the somatosensory system
  • 43.64.Wn Effects of noise and trauma on the auditory system
  • 43.64.Yp Instruments and methods
  • 43.66.+y Psychological acoustics
  • 43.66.−x Psychological acoustics
  • 43.66.Ba Models and theories of auditory processes
  • 43.66.Cb Loudness, absolute threshold
  • 43.66.Dc Masking
  • 43.66.Ed Auditory fatigue, temporary threshold shift
  • 43.66.Fe Discrimination: intensity and frequency
  • 43.66.Gf Detection and discrimination of sound by animals
  • 43.66.Hg Pitch
  • 43.66.Jh Timbre, timbre in musical acoustics
  • 43.66.Ki Subjective tones
  • 43.66.Lj Perceptual effects of sound
  • 43.66.Mk Temporal and sequential aspects of hearing; auditory grouping in relation to music
  • 43.66.Nm Phase effects
  • 43.66.Pn Binaural hearing
  • 43.66.Qp Localization of sound sources
  • 43.66.Rq Dichotic listening
  • 43.66.Sr Deafness, audiometry, aging effects
  • 43.66.Ts Auditory prostheses, hearing aids
  • 43.66.Vt Hearing protection
  • 43.66.Wv Vibration and tactile senses
  • 43.66.Yw Instruments and methods related to hearing and its measurement
  • 43.70.+i Speech production
  • 43.70.−h Speech production
  • 43.70.Aj Anatomy and physiology of the vocal tract, speech aerodynamics, auditory kinetics
  • 43.70.Bk Models and theories of speech production
  • 43.70.Dn Disordered speech
  • 43.70.Ep Development of speech production
  • 43.70.Fq Acoustical correlates of phonetic segments and suprasegmental properties: stress, timing, and intonation
  • 43.70.Gr Larynx anatomy and function; voice production characteristics
  • 43.70.Jt Instrumentation and methodology for speech production research
  • 43.70.Kv Cross-linguistic speech production and acoustics
  • 43.70.Mn Relations between speech production and perception
  • 43.71.+m Speech perception
  • 43.71.−k Speech perception
  • 43.71.An Models and theories of speech perception
  • 43.71.Bp Perception of voice and talker characteristics
  • 43.71.Es Vowel and consonant perception; perception of words, sentences, and fluent speech
  • 43.71.Ft Development of speech perception
  • 43.71.Gv Measures of speech perception (intelligibility and quality)
  • 43.71.Hw Cross-language perception of speech
  • 43.71.Ky Speech perception by the hearing impaired
  • 43.71.Lz Speech perception by the aging
  • 43.71.Ma Visual and tactile speech perception
  • 43.71.Pc Peripheral and central mechanisms in speech perception
  • 43.71.Qr Neurophysiology of speech perception
  • 43.71.Rt Sensory mechanisms in speech perception
  • 43.71.Sy Spoken language processing by humans
  • 43.72.+q Speech processing and communication systems
  • 43.72.−p Speech processing and communication systems
  • 43.72.Ar Speech analysis and analysis techniques; parametric representation of speech
  • 43.72.Bs Neural networks for speech recognition
  • 43.72.Ct Acoustical methods for determining vocal tract shapes
  • 43.72.Dv Speech-noise interaction
  • 43.72.Ew Speech enhancement techniques
  • 43.72.Fx Talker identification and adaptation algorithms
  • 43.72.Gy Narrow, medium, and wideband speech coding
  • 43.72.Ja Speech synthesis and synthesis techniques
  • 43.72.Kb Speech communication systems and dialogue systems
  • 43.72.Lc Time and frequency alignment procedures for speech
  • 43.72.Ne Automatic speech recognition systems
  • 43.72.Pf Automatic talker recognition systems
  • 43.72.Qr Auditory synthesis and recognition
  • 43.72.Uv Forensic acoustics
  • 43.75.+a Music and musical instruments
  • 43.75.−z Music and musical instruments
  • 43.75.Bc Scales, intonation, vibrato, composition
  • 43.75.Cd Music perception and cognition
  • 43.75.De Bowed stringed instruments
  • 43.75.Ef Woodwinds
  • 43.75.Fg Brass instruments and other lip-vibrated instruments
  • 43.75.Gh Plucked string instruments
  • 43.75.Hi Drums
  • 43.75.Kk Bells, gongs, cymbals, mallet percussion, and similar instruments
  • 43.75.Lm Free reed instruments
  • 43.75.Mn Pianos and other struck string instruments
  • 43.75.Np Pipe organs
  • 43.75.Pq Reed woodwind instruments
  • 43.75.Qr Flutes and similar wind instruments
  • 43.75.Rs Singing
  • 43.75.St Musical performance, training, and analysis
  • 43.75.Tv Electro-acoustic and electronic instruments
  • 43.75.Wx Electronic and computer music
  • 43.75.Xz Automatic music recognition, classification, and information retrieval
  • 43.75.Yy Instrumentation and measurement methods for musical acoustics
  • 43.75.Zz Analysis, synthesis, and processing of musical sounds
  • 43.80.+p Bioacoustics
  • 43.80.−n Bioacoustics
  • 43.80.Cs Acoustical characteristics of biological media: molecular species, cellular level tissues
  • 43.80.Ev Acoustical measurement methods in biological systems and media
  • 43.80.Gx Mechanisms of action of acoustic energy on biological systems: physical processes, sites of action
  • 43.80.Jz Use of acoustic energy
  • 43.80.Ka Sound production by animals: mechanisms, characteristics, populations, biosonar
  • 43.80.Lb Sound reception by animals: anatomy, physiology, auditory capacities, processing
  • 43.80.Nd Effects of noise on animals and associated behavior, protective mechanisms
  • 43.80.Pe Agroacoustics
  • 43.80.Qf Medical diagnosis with acoustics
  • 43.80.Sh Medical use of ultrasonics for tissue modification
  • 43.80.Vj Acoustical medical instrumentation and measurement techniques
  • 43.90.+v Other topics in acoustics

44.00.00 Heat transfer

45.00.00 Classical mechanics of discrete systems

  • 45.05.+x General theory of classical mechanics of discrete systems
  • 45.10.−b Computational methods in classical mechanics
  • 45.10.Db Variational and optimization methods
  • 45.10.Hj Perturbation and fractional calculus methods
  • 45.10.Na Geometrical and tensorial methods
  • 45.20.−d Formalisms in classical mechanics
  • 45.20.D− Newtonian mechanics
  • 45.20.Dd Newtonian mechanics
  • 45.20.Jj Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics
  • 45.20.da Forces and torques
  • 45.20.dc Rotational dynamics
  • 45.20.df Momentum conservation
  • 45.20.dg Mechanical energy, work, and power
  • 45.20.dh Energy conservation
  • 45.30.+s General linear dynamical systems
  • 45.40.−f Dynamics and kinematics of rigid bodies
  • 45.40.Aa Translation kinematics
  • 45.40.Bb Rotational kinematics
  • 45.40.Cc Rigid body and gyroscope motion
  • 45.40.Gj Ballistics (projectiles; rockets)
  • 45.40.Ln Robotics
  • 45.50.−j Dynamics and kinematics of a particle and a system of particles
  • 45.50.Dd General motion
  • 45.50.Jf Few- and many-body systems
  • 45.50.Pk Celestial mechanics
  • 45.50.Tn Collisions
  • 45.70.−n Granular systems
  • 45.70.Cc Static sandpiles; granular compaction
  • 45.70.Ht Avalanches
  • 45.70.Mg Granular flow: mixing, segregation and stratification
  • 45.70.Qj Pattern formation
  • 45.70.Vn Granular models of complex systems; traffic flow
  • 45.80.+r Control of mechanical systems
  • 45.90.+t Other topics in classical mechanics of discrete systems

46.00.00 Continuum mechanics of solids

  • 46.05.+b General theory of continuum mechanics of solids
  • 46.15.−x Computational methods in continuum mechanics
  • 46.15.Cc Variational and optimizational methods
  • 46.15.Ff Perturbation and complex analysis methods
  • 46.25.−y Static elasticity
  • 46.25.Cc Theoretical studies
  • 46.25.Hf Thermoelasticity and electromagnetic elasticity (electroelasticity, magnetoelasticity)
  • 46.32.+x Static buckling and instability
  • 46.35.+z Viscoelasticity, plasticity, viscoplasticity
  • 46.40.−f Vibrations and mechanical waves
  • 46.40.Cd Mechanical wave propagation (including diffraction, scattering, and dispersion)
  • 46.40.Ff Resonance, damping, and dynamic stability
  • 46.40.Jj Aeroelasticity and hydroelasticity
  • 46.50.+a Fracture mechanics, fatigue and cracks
  • 46.55.+d Tribology and mechanical contacts
  • 46.65.+g Random phenomena and media
  • 46.70.−p Application of continuum mechanics to structures
  • 46.70.De Beams, plates, and shells
  • 46.70.Hg Membranes, rods, and strings
  • 46.70.Lk Other structures
  • 46.80.+j Measurement methods and techniques in continuum mechanics of solids
  • 46.90.+s Other topics in continuum mechanics of solids

47.00.00 Fluid dynamics

51.00.00 Physics of gases

52.00.00 Physics of plasmas and electric discharges

61.00.00 Structure of solids and liquids; crystallography

62.00.00 Mechanical and acoustical properties of condensed matter

63.00.00 Lattice dynamics

64.00.00 Equations of state, phase equilibria, and phase transitions

  • 64.10.+h General theory of equations of state and phase equilibria
  • 64.30.+t Equations of state of specific substances
  • 64.30.−t Equations of state of specific substances
  • 64.30.Ef Equations of state of pure metals and alloys
  • 64.30.Jk Equations of state of nonmetals
  • 64.60.−i General studies of phase transitions
  • 64.60.A− Specific approaches applied to studies of phase transitions
  • 64.60.Ak Renormalization-group, fractal, and percolation studies of phase transitions
  • 64.60.Bd General theory of phase transitions
  • 64.60.Cn Order-disorder transformations
  • 64.60.De Statistical mechanics of model systems (Ising model, Potts model, field-theory models, Monte Carlo techniques, etc.)
  • 64.60.Ej Studies/theory of phase transitions of specific substances
  • 64.60.F− Equilibrium properties near critical points, critical exponents
  • 64.60.Fr Equilibrium properties near critical points, critical exponents
  • 64.60.Ht Dynamic critical phenomena
  • 64.60.Kw Multicritical points
  • 64.60.My Metastable phases
  • 64.60.Q− Nucleation
  • 64.60.Qb Nucleation
  • 64.60.ae Renormalization-group theory
  • 64.60.ah Percolation
  • 64.60.al Fractal and multifractal systems
  • 64.60.an Finite-size systems
  • 64.60.aq Networks
  • 64.60.at Convolution
  • 64.60.av Cracks, sandpiles, avalanches, and earthquakes
  • 64.60.fd General theory of critical region behavior
  • 64.60.fh Studies of specific substances in the critical region
  • 64.60.qe General theory and computer simulations of nucleation
  • 64.60.qj Studies of nucleation in specific substances
  • 64.70.−p Specific phase transitions
  • 64.70.D− Solid-liquid transitions
  • 64.70.Dv Solid-liquid transitions
  • 64.70.F− Liquid-vapor transitions
  • 64.70.Fx Liquid-vapor transitions
  • 64.70.Hz Solid-vapor transitions
  • 64.70.Ja Liquid-liquid transitions
  • 64.70.K− Solid-solid transitions
  • 64.70.Kb Solid-solid transitions
  • 64.70.M− Transitions in liquid crystals
  • 64.70.Md Transitions in liquid crystals
  • 64.70.Nd Structural transitions in nanoscale materials
  • 64.70.P− Glass transitions of specific systems
  • 64.70.Pf Glass transitions
  • 64.70.Q− Theory and modeling of the glass transition
  • 64.70.Rh Commensurate-incommensurate transitions
  • 64.70.Tg Quantum phase transitions
  • 64.70.dg Crystallization of specific substances
  • 64.70.dj Melting of specific substances
  • 64.70.dm General theory of the solid-liquid transition
  • 64.70.fh Boiling and bubble dynamics
  • 64.70.fm Thermodynamics studies of evaporation and condensation
  • 64.70.kd Metals and alloys
  • 64.70.kg Semiconductors
  • 64.70.kj Glasses
  • 64.70.km Polymers
  • 64.70.kp Ionic crystals
  • 64.70.kt Molecular crystals
  • 64.70.mf Theory and modeling of specific liquid crystal transitions, including computer simulation
  • 64.70.mj Experimental studies of liquid crystal transitions
  • 64.70.pe Metallic glasses
  • 64.70.ph Nonmetallic glasses (silicates, oxides, selenides, etc.)
  • 64.70.pj Polymers
  • 64.70.pm Liquids
  • 64.70.pp Liquid crystals
  • 64.70.ps Granules
  • 64.70.pv Colloids
  • 64.70.qd Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics
  • 64.70.qj Dynamics and criticality
  • 64.75.+g Solubility, segregation, and mixing; phase separation
  • 64.75.−g Phase equilibria
  • 64.75.Bc Solubility
  • 64.75.Cd Phase equilibria of fluid mixtures, including gases, hydrates, etc.
  • 64.75.Ef Mixing
  • 64.75.Gh Phase separation and segregation in model systems (hard spheres, Lennard-Jones, etc.)
  • 64.75.Jk Phase separation and segregation in nanoscale systems
  • 64.75.Lm Phase separation and segregation in oxidation
  • 64.75.Nx Phase separation and segregation in solid solutions
  • 64.75.Op Phase separation and segregation in alloying
  • 64.75.Qr Phase separation and segregation in semiconductors
  • 64.75.St Phase separation and segregation in thin films
  • 64.75.Va Phase separation and segregation in polymer blends/polymeric solutions
  • 64.75.Xc Phase separation and segregation in colloidal systems
  • 64.75.Yz Self-assembly
  • 64.90.+b Other topics in equations of state, phase equilibria, and phase transitions

65.00.00 Thermal properties of condensed matter

66.00.00 Nonelectronic transport properties of condensed matter

67.00.00 Quantum fluids and solids

68.00.00 Surfaces and interfaces; thin films and nanosystems (structure and nonelectronic properties)

71.00.00 Electronic structure of bulk materials

72.00.00 Electronic transport in condensed matter

73.00.00 Electronic structure and electrical properties of surfaces, interfaces, thin films, and low-dimensional structures

74.00.00 Superconductivity

75.00.00 Magnetic properties and materials

76.00.00 Magnetic resonances and relaxations in condensed matter, mössbauer effect

77.00.00 Dielectrics, piezoelectrics, and ferroelectrics and their properties

78.00.00 Optical properties, condensed-matter spectroscopy and other interactions of radiation and particles with condensed matter

79.00.00 Electron and ion emission by liquids and solids; impact phenomena

81.00.00 Materials science

82.00.00 Physical chemistry and chemical physics

83.00.00 Rheology

  • 83.10.−y Fundamentals and theoretical
  • 83.10.Bb Kinematics of deformation and flow
  • 83.10.Ff Continuum mechanics
  • 83.10.Gr Constitutive relations
  • 83.10.Kn Reptation and tube theories
  • 83.10.Mj Molecular dynamics, Brownian dynamics
  • 83.10.Pp Particle dynamics
  • 83.10.Rs Computer simulation of molecular and particle dynamics
  • 83.10.Tv Structural and phase changes
  • 83.50.−v Deformation and flow
  • 83.50.Ax Steady shear flows, viscometric flow
  • 83.50.Ha Flow in channels
  • 83.50.Jf Extensional flow and combined shear and extension
  • 83.50.Lh Slip boundary effects
  • 83.50.Rp Wall slip and apparent slip
  • 83.50.Uv Material processing (extension, molding, etc.)
  • 83.50.Xa Mixing and blending
  • 83.60.−a Material behavior
  • 83.60.Bc Linear viscoelasticity
  • 83.60.Df Nonlinear viscoelasticity
  • 83.60.Fg Shear rate dependent viscosity
  • 83.60.Hc Normal stress differences and their effects (e.g. rod climbing)
  • 83.60.Jk Extrudate swell
  • 83.60.La Viscoplasticity; yield stress
  • 83.60.Np Effects of electric and magnetic fields
  • 83.60.Pq Time-dependent structure (thixotropy, rheopexy)
  • 83.60.Rs Shear rate-dependent structure (shear thinning and shear thickening)
  • 83.60.St Non-isothermal rheology
  • 83.60.Uv Wave propagation, fracture, and crack healing
  • 83.60.Wc Flow instabilities
  • 83.60.Yz Drag reduction
  • 83.80.−k Material type
  • 83.80.Ab Solids: e.g., composites, glasses, semicrystalline polymers
  • 83.80.Fg Granular solids
  • 83.80.Gv Electro- and magnetorheological fluids
  • 83.80.Hj Suspensions, dispersions, pastes, slurries, colloids
  • 83.80.Iz Emulsions and foams
  • 83.80.Jx Reacting systems: thermosetting polymers, chemorheology, rheokinetics
  • 83.80.Kn Physical gels and microgels
  • 83.80.Lz Physiological materials (e.g. blood, collagen, etc.)
  • 83.80.Mc Other natural materials (e.g. wood and other vegetable materials)
  • 83.80.Nb Geological materials: Earth, magma, ice, rocks, etc.
  • 83.80.Qr Surfactant and micellar systems, associated polymers
  • 83.80.Rs Polymer solutions
  • 83.80.Sg Polymer melts
  • 83.80.Tc Polymer blends
  • 83.80.Uv Block copolymers
  • 83.80.Va Elastomeric polymers
  • 83.80.Wx Filled elastomers
  • 83.80.Xz Liquid crystals: nematic, cholesteric, smectic, discotic, etc.
  • 83.80.Ya Processed food
  • 83.85.−c Techniques and apparatus
  • 83.85.Cg Rheological measurements—rheometry
  • 83.85.Ei Optical methods; rheo-optics
  • 83.85.Fg NMR/magnetic resonance imaging
  • 83.85.Hf X-ray and neutron scattering
  • 83.85.Jn Viscosity measurements
  • 83.85.Lq Normal stress difference measurements
  • 83.85.Ns Data analysis
  • 83.85.Pt Computational fluid dynamics
  • 83.85.Rx Extensional flow measurement
  • 83.85.St Stress relaxation
  • 83.85.Tz Creep and/or creep recoil
  • 83.85.Vb Small amplitude oscillatory shear (dynamic mechanical analysis)
  • 83.90.+s Other topics in rheology

84.00.00 Electronics; radiowave and microwave technology; direct energy conversion and storage

85.00.00 Electronic and magnetic devices; microelectronics

87.00.00 Biological and medical physics

  • 87.10.+e General theory and mathematical aspects
  • 87.10.−e General theory and mathematical aspects
  • 87.10.Ca Analytical theories
  • 87.10.Ed Ordinary differential equations (ODE), partial differential equations (PDE), integrodifferential models
  • 87.10.Hk Lattice models
  • 87.10.Kn Finite element calculations
  • 87.10.Mn Stochastic modeling
  • 87.10.Pq Elasticity theory
  • 87.10.Rt Monte Carlo simulations
  • 87.10.Tf Molecular dynamics simulation
  • 87.10.Vg Biological information
  • 87.14.−g Biomolecules: types
  • 87.14.Cc Lipids
  • 87.14.Df Carbohydrates
  • 87.14.E− Proteins
  • 87.14.Ee Proteins
  • 87.14.G− Nucleic acids
  • 87.14.Gg DNA, RNA
  • 87.14.Lk Hormones
  • 87.14.Pq Vitamins
  • 87.14.ef Peptides
  • 87.14.ej Enzymes
  • 87.14.em Fibrils (amyloids, collagen, etc.)
  • 87.14.ep Membrane proteins
  • 87.14.et Generic models (lattice, HP, etc.)
  • 87.14.gf Nucleotides
  • 87.14.gk DNA
  • 87.14.gn RNA
  • 87.15.−v Biomolecules: structure and physical properties
  • 87.15.A− Theory, modeling, and computer simulation
  • 87.15.Aa Theory and modeling; computer simulation
  • 87.15.B− Structure of biomolecules
  • 87.15.By Structure and bonding
  • 87.15.Cc Folding: thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, models, and pathways
  • 87.15.Fh Bonding; mechanisms of bond breakage
  • 87.15.H− Dynamics of biomolecules
  • 87.15.He Dynamics and conformational changes
  • 87.15.K− Molecular interactions; membrane-protein interactions
  • 87.15.Kg Molecular interactions; membrane-protein interactions
  • 87.15.La Mechanical properties
  • 87.15.M− Spectra of biomolecules
  • 87.15.Mi Spectra, photodissociation, and photoionization; luminescence
  • 87.15.N− Properties of solutions of macromolecules
  • 87.15.Nn Properties of solutions; aggregation and crystallization of macromolecules
  • 87.15.Pc Electronic and electrical properties
  • 87.15.Qt Sequence analysis
  • 87.15.R− Reactions and kinetics
  • 87.15.Rn Reactions and kinetics; polymerization
  • 87.15.Tt Electrophoresis
  • 87.15.Vv Diffusion
  • 87.15.Ya Fluctuations
  • 87.15.Zg Phase transitions
  • 87.15.ad Analytical theories
  • 87.15.ag Quantum calculations
  • 87.15.ak Monte Carlo simulations
  • 87.15.ap Molecular dynamics simulation
  • 87.15.bd Secondary structure
  • 87.15.bg Tertiary structure
  • 87.15.bk Structure of aggregates
  • 87.15.hg Dynamics of intermolecular interactions
  • 87.15.hj Transport dynamics
  • 87.15.hm Folding dynamics
  • 87.15.hp Conformational changes
  • 87.15.ht Ultrafast dynamics; charge transfer
  • 87.15.kj Protein-polynucleotide interactions
  • 87.15.km Protein-protein interactions
  • 87.15.kp Protein-ligand interactions
  • 87.15.kr Protein-solvent interactions
  • 87.15.kt Protein-membrane interactions
  • 87.15.mk Photodissociation
  • 87.15.mn Photoionization
  • 87.15.mq Luminescence
  • 87.15.np Dissolution
  • 87.15.nr Aggregation
  • 87.15.nt Crystallization
  • 87.15.rp Polymerization
  • 87.15.rs Dissociation
  • 87.16.−b Subcellular structure and processes
  • 87.16.A− Theory, modeling, and simulations
  • 87.16.Ac Theory and modeling; computer simulation
  • 87.16.D− Membranes, bilayers, and vesicles
  • 87.16.Dg Membranes, bilayers, and vesicles
  • 87.16.Gj Cell walls
  • 87.16.Ka Filaments, microtubules, their networks, and supramolecular assemblies
  • 87.16.Ln Cytoskeleton
  • 87.16.Mq Morphology of nerve cells
  • 87.16.Nn Motor proteins (myosin, kinesin dynein)
  • 87.16.Qp Pseudopods, lamellipods, cilia, and flagella
  • 87.16.Sr Chromosomes, histones
  • 87.16.Tb Mitochondria and other organelles
  • 87.16.Uv Active transport processes
  • 87.16.Vy Ion channels
  • 87.16.Wd Intracellular trafficking
  • 87.16.Xa Signal transduction and intracellular signaling
  • 87.16.Yc Regulatory genetic and chemical networks
  • 87.16.Zg Nuclear morphology
  • 87.16.ad Analytical theories
  • 87.16.af Monte Carlo calculations
  • 87.16.aj Lattice models
  • 87.16.dj Dynamics and fluctuations
  • 87.16.dm Mechanical properties and rheology
  • 87.16.dp Transport, including channels, pores, and lateral diffusion
  • 87.16.dr Assembly and interactions
  • 87.16.dt Structure, static correlations, domains, and rafts
  • 87.17.−d Cell processes
  • 87.17.Aa Modeling, computer simulation of cell processes
  • 87.17.Ee Growth and division
  • 87.17.Jj Cell locomotion, chemotaxis
  • 87.17.Nn Morphology of nerve cells
  • 87.17.Pq Morphogenesis
  • 87.17.Rt Cell adhesion and cell mechanics
  • 87.17.Uv Biotechnology of cell processes
  • 87.18.−h Biological complexity
  • 87.18.Bb Computer simulation
  • 87.18.Cf Genetic switches and networks
  • 87.18.Ed Cell aggregation
  • 87.18.Fx Multicellular phenomena, biofilms
  • 87.18.Gh Cell-cell communication; collective behavior of motile cells
  • 87.18.Hf Spatiotemporal pattern formation in cellular populations
  • 87.18.La Morphogenesis
  • 87.18.Mp Signal transduction networks
  • 87.18.Nq Large-scale biological processes and integrative biophysics
  • 87.18.Pj Chemical waves
  • 87.18.Sn Neural networks and synaptic communication
  • 87.18.Tt Noise in biological systems
  • 87.18.Vf Systems biology
  • 87.18.Wd Genomics
  • 87.18.Xr Proteomics
  • 87.18.Yt Circadian rhythms
  • 87.19.−j Properties of higher organisms
  • 87.19.Bb Sensory perceptions
  • 87.19.Dd Information processing in vision and hearing
  • 87.19.Ff Muscles
  • 87.19.Hh Cardiac dynamics
  • 87.19.Jj Circadian rhythms
  • 87.19.L− Neuroscience
  • 87.19.La Neuroscience
  • 87.19.Nn Electrophysiology
  • 87.19.Pp Biothermics and thermal processes in biology
  • 87.19.R− Mechanical and electrical properties of tissues and organs
  • 87.19.Rr Mechanical properties of tissues and organs
  • 87.19.St Movement and locomotion
  • 87.19.Tt Rheology of body fluids
  • 87.19.U− Hemodynamics
  • 87.19.Uv Haemodynamics, pneumodynamics
  • 87.19.Wx Pneumodyamics, respiration
  • 87.19.X− Diseases
  • 87.19.Xx Diseases
  • 87.19.lb Action potential propagation and axons
  • 87.19.lc Noise in the nervous system
  • 87.19.ld Electrodynamics in the nervous system
  • 87.19.le EEG and MEG
  • 87.19.lf MRI: anatomic, functional, spectral, diffusion
  • 87.19.lg Synapses: chemical and electrical (gap junctions)
  • 87.19.lh Optical imaging of neuronal activity
  • 87.19.lj Neuronal network dynamics
  • 87.19.lk Glia
  • 87.19.ll Models of single neurons and networks
  • 87.19.lm Synchronization in the nervous system
  • 87.19.ln Oscillations and resonance
  • 87.19.lo Information theory
  • 87.19.lp Pattern formation: activity and anatomic
  • 87.19.lq Neuronal wave propagation
  • 87.19.lr Control theory and feedback
  • 87.19.ls Encoding, decoding, and transformation
  • 87.19.lt Sensory systems: visual, auditory, tactile, taste, and olfaction
  • 87.19.lu Motor systems: Locomotion, flight, vocalization
  • 87.19.lv Learning and memory
  • 87.19.lw Plasticity
  • 87.19.lx Development and growth
  • 87.19.ly Energetics
  • 87.19.rd Elastic properties
  • 87.19.rf Dielectric properties
  • 87.19.rh Fluid transport and rheology
  • 87.19.rj Contraction
  • 87.19.rm Structure
  • 87.19.rp Impulse propagation
  • 87.19.rs Movement
  • 87.19.ru Locomotion
  • 87.19.ug Heart and lung dynamics
  • 87.19.uj Peripheral vascular dynamics
  • 87.19.um Blood-brain barrier
  • 87.19.xb Bacterial diseases
  • 87.19.xd Viral diseases
  • 87.19.xe Parasitic diseases
  • 87.19.xg Fungal diseases
  • 87.19.xh Prion diseases
  • 87.19.xj Cancer
  • 87.19.xk Genetic diseases
  • 87.19.xm Epilepsy
  • 87.19.xn Musculoskeletal diseases
  • 87.19.xp Motor system disease (Parkinson’s, etc.)
  • 87.19.xq Stroke
  • 87.19.xr Degenerative diseases (Alzheimer’s, ALS, etc)
  • 87.19.xt Developmental diseases
  • 87.19.xu Gastrointestinal diseases
  • 87.19.xv Endocrine diseases
  • 87.19.xw Immune system diseases
  • 87.23.−n Ecology and evolution
  • 87.23.Cc Population dynamics and ecological pattern formation
  • 87.23.Ge Dynamics of social systems
  • 87.23.Kg Dynamics of evolution
  • 87.50.−a Effects of electromagnetic and acoustic fields on biological systems
  • 87.50.C− Static and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields effects
  • 87.50.Gi Ionizing radiations (ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma-rays, ions, electrons, positrons, neutrons, and mesons, etc.)
  • 87.50.Hj Optical radiation (near ultraviolet, visible, and infrared)
  • 87.50.Jk Radio frequency and microwave radiation (power lines)
  • 87.50.Kk Sound and ultrasound
  • 87.50.Mn Magnetic fields
  • 87.50.Rr Electric fields
  • 87.50.S− Radiofrequency/microwave fields effects
  • 87.50.U− Millimeter/terahertz fields effects
  • 87.50.W− Optical/infrared radiation effects
  • 87.50.Y− Biological effects of acoustic and ultrasonic energy
  • 87.50.cf Biophysical mechanisms of interaction
  • 87.50.ch Electrophoresis/dielectrophoresis and other mechanical effects
  • 87.50.cj Electroporation/membrane effects
  • 87.50.cm Dosimetry/exposure assessment
  • 87.50.ct Therapeutic applications
  • 87.50.sg Biophysical mechanisms of interaction
  • 87.50.sj Dosimetry/exposure assessment
  • 87.50.st Therapeutic applications
  • 87.50.uj Biophysical mechanisms of interaction
  • 87.50.up Dosimetry/exposure assessment
  • 87.50.ux Therapeutic applications
  • 87.50.wf Biophysical mechanisms of interaction
  • 87.50.wj Dosimetry/exposure assessment
  • 87.50.wp Therapeutic applications
  • 87.50.yg Biophysical mechanisms of interaction
  • 87.50.yk Dosimetry/exposure assessment
  • 87.50.yt Therapeutic applications
  • 87.52.−g Radiation monitoring, control, and safety
  • 87.52.Df Low LET: therapeutic and diagnostic X-rays and electrons
  • 87.52.Ga Low LET: associated neutron shielding and measurement
  • 87.52.Ln High LET
  • 87.52.Px Risk/benefit analysis
  • 87.52.Tr Regulatory issues
  • 87.53.−j Effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems
  • 87.53.Ay Biophysical mechanisms of interaction
  • 87.53.Bn Dosimetry/exposure assessment
  • 87.53.Dq Photon dosimetry: measurements
  • 87.53.Fs Electron and positron dosimetry: theory and algorithms
  • 87.53.Hv Electron and positron dosimetry: measurements
  • 87.53.Jw Therapeutic applications, including brachytherapy
  • 87.53.Kn Conformal radiation treatment
  • 87.53.Ly Stereotactic radiosurgery
  • 87.53.Mr Beam intensity modification: wedges, compensators
  • 87.53.Na Radioimmunotherapy
  • 87.53.Oq Portal imaging in therapy
  • 87.53.Pb Proton, neutron, and heavier particle dosimetry: theory and algorithms
  • 87.53.Qc Proton, neutron, and heavier particle dosimetry: measurements
  • 87.53.Rd Microdosimetry
  • 87.53.St Record and verify systems and applications
  • 87.53.Tf Treatment planning, optimization, tissue response factors, and dose-volume analysis
  • 87.53.Uv Collimation
  • 87.53.Vb Simulation
  • 87.53.Wz Monte Carlo applications
  • 87.53.Xd Quality assurance in radiotherapy
  • 87.54.−n Non-ionizing radiation therapy physics
  • 87.54.Br Thermotherapy (hyperthermia and cryogenic therapy)
  • 87.54.Dt Electrotherapy
  • 87.54.Fj Photodynamic therapy
  • 87.54.Hk Sound and ultrasound therapy/lithotripsy
  • 87.55.−x Treatment strategy
  • 87.55.D− Treatment planning
  • 87.55.Gh Simulation
  • 87.55.K− Monte Carlo methods
  • 87.55.N− Radiation monitoring, control, and safety
  • 87.55.Qr Quality assurance in radiotherapy
  • 87.55.T− Record and verify systems and applications
  • 87.55.de Optimization
  • 87.55.dh Tissue response
  • 87.55.dk Dose-volume analysis
  • 87.55.kd Algorithms
  • 87.55.kh Applications
  • 87.55.km Verification
  • 87.55.ne Therapeutic applications
  • 87.55.tg Design
  • 87.55.tm Applications
  • 87.56.−v Radiation therapy equipment
  • 87.56.B− Radiation sources
  • 87.56.By Radiation generators
  • 87.56.Da Ancillary equipment
  • 87.56.Fc Quality assurance equipment
  • 87.56.J− Collimation
  • 87.56.N− Beam intensity modifications
  • 87.56.bd Accelerators
  • 87.56.bg Radioactive sources
  • 87.56.jf Field size
  • 87.56.jk Field shaping
  • 87.56.ng Wedges and compensators
  • 87.56.nk Collimators
  • 87.57.−s Medical imaging
  • 87.57.C− Image quality
  • 87.57.Ce Image quality: contrast, resolution, noise, etc.
  • 87.57.Gg Image reconstruction and registration
  • 87.57.N− Image analysis
  • 87.57.Nk Image analysis
  • 87.57.Q− Computed tomography
  • 87.57.R− Computer-aided diagnosis
  • 87.57.Ra Computer-aided diagnosis
  • 87.57.U− Nuclear medicine imaging
  • 87.57.Va Neutron imaging; neutron tomography
  • 87.57.cf Spatial resolution
  • 87.57.cj Contrast
  • 87.57.cm Noise
  • 87.57.cp Artifacts and distortion
  • 87.57.nf Reconstruction
  • 87.57.nj Registration
  • 87.57.nm Segmentation
  • 87.57.np Smoothing
  • 87.57.nt Edge enhancement
  • 87.57.qh Single-slice
  • 87.57.qp Multislice
  • 87.57.rh Mammography
  • 87.57.ue Conventional nuclear medicine imaging
  • 87.57.uh Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)
  • 87.57.uk Positron emission tomography (PET)
  • 87.57.un Radiopharmaceuticals
  • 87.57.uq Dosimetry
  • 87.58.−b Nuclear medicine imaging, dosimetry, labeling, metabolic studies
  • 87.58.Ce Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)
  • 87.58.Fg Positron emission tomography (PET)
  • 87.58.Ji Radiopharmaceuticals
  • 87.58.Mj Digital imaging
  • 87.58.Pm Scintillation cameras
  • 87.58.Sp Dosimetry
  • 87.58.Vr Quantitative measurements and scanning
  • 87.58.Xs Bone densitometry
  • 87.59.−e X-ray imaging
  • 87.59.B− Radiography
  • 87.59.Bh X-ray radiography
  • 87.59.C− Fluoroscopy
  • 87.59.Ci Fluoroscopy
  • 87.59.Dj Angiography
  • 87.59.E− Mammography
  • 87.59.Ek Mammography
  • 87.59.Fm Computed tomography (CT)
  • 87.59.Hp Digital radiography
  • 87.59.Jq Transmission imaging
  • 87.59.Ls Bone densitometry
  • 87.59.bd Computed radiography
  • 87.59.bf Digital radiography
  • 87.59.cf Digital fluoroscopy
  • 87.59.eg Film mammography
  • 87.59.ej Digital mammography
  • 87.61.−c Magnetic resonance imaging
  • 87.61.Bj Theory and principles
  • 87.61.Cd Pulse sequences for imaging
  • 87.61.Ff Instrumentation
  • 87.61.Hk Pulse sequences
  • 87.61.Jc Anatomic imaging
  • 87.61.Lh Angiography and macroscopic flow estimation
  • 87.61.Np Flow imaging
  • 87.61.Pk Clinical imaging studies
  • 87.61.Qr Functional imaging
  • 87.61.Tg Clinical applications
  • 87.62.+n Medical imaging equipment
  • 87.63.−d Non-ionizing radiation equipment and techniques
  • 87.63.D− Ultrasonography
  • 87.63.Df Ultrasonography
  • 87.63.Hg Thermography
  • 87.63.L− Visual imaging
  • 87.63.Lk Visible radiation: diaphanography, transillumination, laser imaging
  • 87.63.Pn Electrical impedance tomography (EIT)
  • 87.63.St Bone densitometry
  • 87.63.dh Ultrasonographic imaging
  • 87.63.dk Doppler
  • 87.63.lg Principles of visualization
  • 87.63.lj Image perception
  • 87.63.lm Image enhancement
  • 87.63.lp Transillumination
  • 87.63.lt Laser imaging
  • 87.64.−t Spectroscopic and microscopic techniques in biophysics and medical physics
  • 87.64.Aa Computer simulation
  • 87.64.Bx Electron, neutron and x-ray diffraction and scattering
  • 87.64.Cc Scattering of visible, uv, and infrared radiation
  • 87.64.Dz Scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopy
  • 87.64.Ee Electron microscopy
  • 87.64.Fb EXAFS spectroscopy
  • 87.64.Gb X-ray spectroscopy
  • 87.64.Hd EPR and NMR spectroscopy
  • 87.64.Je Infrared and Raman spectroscopy
  • 87.64.K− Spectroscopy
  • 87.64.Lg Electron and photoelectron spectroscopy
  • 87.64.M− Optical microscopy
  • 87.64.Ni Optical absorption, magnetic circular dichroism, and fluorescence spectroscopy
  • 87.64.Pj Mossbauer spectroscopy
  • 87.64.Rr Light microscopy: bright-field, dark-field, phase contrast, DIC
  • 87.64.Tt Confocal microscopy
  • 87.64.Vv Multiphoton microscopy
  • 87.64.Xx Near-field scanning optical microscopy
  • 87.64.kd X-ray and EXAFS
  • 87.64.kh EPR
  • 87.64.kj NMR
  • 87.64.km Infrared
  • 87.64.kp Raman
  • 87.64.ks Electron and photoelectron
  • 87.64.ku Magnetic circular dichroism
  • 87.64.kv Fluorescence
  • 87.64.kx Mössbauer
  • 87.64.mc Bright field
  • 87.64.mf Dark field
  • 87.64.mh Phase contrast and DIC
  • 87.64.mk Confocal
  • 87.64.mn Multiphoton
  • 87.64.mt Near-field scanning
  • 87.65.+y Aerospace bio- and medical physics (effects of accelerations, weightlessness, and space environment)
  • 87.66.−a Radiation measurement
  • 87.66.Cd Films: silver bromide based, radiochromic, etc.
  • 87.66.Ff Chemical dosimetry
  • 87.66.Jj Ionization dosimetry
  • 87.66.Na Calorimetric dosimetry
  • 87.66.Pm Solid state detectors
  • 87.66.Sq Thermoluminescence, bioluminescence, etc.
  • 87.66.Uv Magnetic resonance
  • 87.66.Xa Phantoms
  • 87.68.+z Biomaterials and biological interfaces
  • 87.80.−y Biophysical techniques (research methods)
  • 87.80.Cc Optical trapping
  • 87.80.Dj Spectroscopies
  • 87.80.Ek Mechanical and micromechanical techniques
  • 87.80.Fe Micromanipulation of biological structures
  • 87.80.Jg Patch clamping and other physiological measurements
  • 87.80.Kc Electrochemical techniques
  • 87.80.Lg Magnetic and paramagnetic resonance
  • 87.80.Mj Micromachining
  • 87.80.Nj Single-molecule techniques
  • 87.80.Pa Morphometry and stereology
  • 87.80.Qk Biochemical separation processes
  • 87.80.Rb Tissue and cellular engineering and biotechnology
  • 87.80.St Genomic techniques
  • 87.80.Tq Biological signal processing and instrumentation
  • 87.80.Un Proteomic techniques
  • 87.80.Vt Dynamical, regulatory, and integrative biology
  • 87.80.Xa Neural engineering
  • 87.83.+a Biomedical applications of nanotechnology
  • 87.85.−d Biomedical engineering
  • 87.85.D− Applied neuroscience
  • 87.85.E− Neural prosthetics
  • 87.85.F− Smart prosthetics
  • 87.85.G− Biomechanics
  • 87.85.J− Biomaterials
  • 87.85.Lf Tissue engineering
  • 87.85.M− Biotechnology
  • 87.85.Ng Biological signal processing
  • 87.85.Ox Biomedical instrumentation and transducers, including micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)
  • 87.85.Pq Biomedical imaging
  • 87.85.Qr Nanotechnologies-design
  • 87.85.Rs Nanotechnologies-applications
  • 87.85.St Robotics
  • 87.85.Tu Modeling biomedical systems
  • 87.85.Uv Micromanipulators
  • 87.85.Va Micromachining
  • 87.85.Wc Neural engineering
  • 87.85.Xd Dynamical, regulatory, and integrative biology
  • 87.85.dd Brain-machine interfaces
  • 87.85.dh Cells on a chip
  • 87.85.dm Physical models of neurophysiological processes
  • 87.85.dq Neural networks
  • 87.85.eg Electrode stimulation
  • 87.85.ej Safe limits of charge injection
  • 87.85.em Tissue damage
  • 87.85.ff Feedback
  • 87.85.fh Feedforward
  • 87.85.fk Biosensors
  • 87.85.fp Bidirectional communication
  • 87.85.gf Fluid mechanics and rheology
  • 87.85.gj Movement and locomotion
  • 87.85.gp Mechanical systems
  • 87.85.jc Electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of biological matter
  • 87.85.jf Bio-based materials
  • 87.85.jj Biocompatibility
  • 87.85.md Genetic engineering
  • 87.85.mg Genomics
  • 87.85.mk Proteomics
  • 87.90.+y Other topics in biological and medical physics

88.00.00 Renewable energy resources and applications

  • 88.05.−b Energy analysis
  • 88.05.Bc Energy efficiency; definitions and standards
  • 88.05.De Thermodynamic constraints on energy production
  • 88.05.Ec Renewable energy targets
  • 88.05.Gh Energy conservation; electricity demand reduction
  • 88.05.Hj Energy content issues; life cycle analysis
  • 88.05.Jk Policy issues; resource assessment
  • 88.05.Lg Economic issues; sustainability; cost trends
  • 88.05.Np Environmental aspects
  • 88.05.Pq Emissions trading and CDM
  • 88.05.Qr Energy use in agriculture
  • 88.05.Rt Energy use in appliances and electronic equipment
  • 88.05.Sv Energy use in heating and cooling of residential and commercial buildings
  • 88.05.Tg Energy use in lighting
  • 88.05.Vx Energy use in industry and manufacturing
  • 88.05.Xj Energy use in transportation
  • 88.10.−g Geothermal energy
  • 88.10.C− Ground heat
  • 88.10.Eb Hot dry rock (igneous systems)
  • 88.10.F− Hydrothermal reservoirs
  • 88.10.G− Reservoir engineering (enhanced geothermal systems)
  • 88.10.H− Geothermal electricity production
  • 88.10.J− Brines and their dissolved matter
  • 88.10.cd Geothermal heat pumps
  • 88.10.cf Global geothermal flux
  • 88.10.ch Continental geothermal energy
  • 88.10.cj Oceanic geothermal energy
  • 88.10.cn Heating and cooling of buildings; space heating
  • 88.10.fb Hot springs
  • 88.10.fe Hot water from wells
  • 88.10.fh Down hole pumps
  • 88.10.gc Simulation; prediction models
  • 88.10.gf Imaging fluid flow
  • 88.10.gk High-temperature logging tools and sensors
  • 88.10.gn Fracture characterization of rocks
  • 88.10.gp Site characterization; zonal isolation
  • 88.10.hd Dry steam plants
  • 88.10.hf Flash steam plants
  • 88.10.hh Binary-cycle steam plants
  • 88.10.jj Mineral extraction
  • 88.10.jn Metals extraction
  • 88.10.jp Combined minerals and metals extraction
  • 88.20.−j Biomass energy
  • 88.20.D− Biomass energy sources
  • 88.20.F− Renewable alternative fuels from biomass energy
  • 88.20.G− Methane production
  • 88.20.H− Biomass processing routes
  • 88.20.J− Biomass conversion methods
  • 88.20.M− Biopower systems
  • 88.20.R− Bioproducts from biomass
  • 88.20.T− Markets for renewable alternative fuels
  • 88.20.Y− Social issues
  • 88.20.dd Wood
  • 88.20.df Food crops
  • 88.20.dh Grassy and woody plants
  • 88.20.dj Agriculture/forestry residues
  • 88.20.dm Aquatic/marine sources
  • 88.20.dp Cellolusic materials
  • 88.20.dr Food wastes
  • 88.20.dt Municipal and industrial wastes
  • 88.20.dv Methane from landfills
  • 88.20.ff Ethanol
  • 88.20.fg Methanol
  • 88.20.fh Butanol
  • 88.20.fj Mixed alcohols
  • 88.20.fk Biodiesel
  • 88.20.fn Hydrogen
  • 88.20.fq Methane
  • 88.20.fr Solid pelletized fuel
  • 88.20.fs Syngas
  • 88.20.ft Vegetable oils
  • 88.20.fv Bioethers
  • 88.20.fw Bioaviation fuel
  • 88.20.gc Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquids (hydrocarbons)
  • 88.20.gf Decaying organic matter
  • 88.20.gh Anaerobic digestion
  • 88.20.hh Biochemical route
  • 88.20.hj Thermochemical route
  • 88.20.jj Combustion
  • 88.20.jm Hydrolysis and fermentation
  • 88.20.jp Extraction and esterification
  • 88.20.jr Alternate photosynthetic pathways
  • 88.20.mn Direct-firing systems
  • 88.20.mp Cofiring systems
  • 88.20.mr Gasification systems; syngas
  • 88.20.mt Pyrolysis to liquids
  • 88.20.mv Paper mills
  • 88.20.rb Plastics
  • 88.20.rg Glues
  • 88.20.rm Acids
  • 88.20.rp Wood adhesives
  • 88.20.rr Foam insulation
  • 88.20.td Heat
  • 88.20.tf Combined heat and power
  • 88.20.th Transportation fuels
  • 88.20.tk Chemicals
  • 88.20.yq Food versus fuel debate
  • 88.30.−k Hydrogen and fuel cell technology
  • 88.30.E− Hydrogen production with renewable energy
  • 88.30.G− Fuel cell systems
  • 88.30.J− Fuel cell components
  • 88.30.M− Fuel cell component materials
  • 88.30.Nn Corrosion protection
  • 88.30.P− Types of fuel cells
  • 88.30.R− Hydrogen storage
  • 88.30.ej Thermochemical hydrogen
  • 88.30.em Electrolytic hydrogen
  • 88.30.ep Electrochemical photolytic hydrogen
  • 88.30.er Biological photolytic hydrogen
  • 88.30.et Reforming biomass and wastes
  • 88.30.ew Water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction
  • 88.30.gg Design and simulation
  • 88.30.jn Fuel cell stack
  • 88.30.jp Fuel processor
  • 88.30.jr Current converter
  • 88.30.jt Heat recovery system
  • 88.30.mg Inorganic proton conductors
  • 88.30.mj Composite materials
  • 88.30.pd Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEM)
  • 88.30.pf Direct methanol fuel cells
  • 88.30.ph Alkaline fuel cells
  • 88.30.pj Phosphoric acid fuel cells
  • 88.30.pm Molten carbonate fuel cells
  • 88.30.pn Solid oxide fuel cells
  • 88.30.pp Regenerative fuel cells
  • 88.30.rd Inorganic metal hydrides
  • 88.30.rf Organics
  • 88.30.rh Carbon nanotubes
  • 88.30.rj Hydrocarbons and alcohols liquid systems
  • 88.40.−j Solar energy
  • 88.40.F− Solar concentrators
  • 88.40.H− Solar cells (photovoltaics)
  • 88.40.J− Types of solar cells
  • 88.40.M− Residential and commercial buildings
  • 88.40.fc Modeling and analysis
  • 88.40.ff Performance testing
  • 88.40.fh Advanced materials development
  • 88.40.fj Parabolic-trough mirrors
  • 88.40.fm Dish/engine systems
  • 88.40.fp Power tower systems
  • 88.40.fr Concentrating collectors
  • 88.40.hj Efficiency and performance of solar cells
  • 88.40.hm Cost of production of solar cells
  • 88.40.jj Silicon solar cells
  • 88.40.jm Thin film III-V and II-VI based solar cells
  • 88.40.jn Thin film Cu-based I-III-VI2 solar cells
  • 88.40.jp Multijunction solar cells
  • 88.40.jr Organic photovoltaics
  • 88.40.me Solar heating and cooling systems
  • 88.40.mg Active space/water heating
  • 88.40.mj Passive space/water heating
  • 88.40.mm Pool heating systems
  • 88.40.mp Grid-tied solar electric systems
  • 88.40.mr Building-integrated photovoltaics
  • 88.40.mt Roof top shingles
  • 88.40.mv Building facades
  • 88.40.mx Day lighting/natural lighting of buildings
  • 88.40.my Outdoor solar lights
  • 88.50.−k Wind energy
  • 88.50.G− Wind turbines
  • 88.50.J− Wind farms
  • 88.50.Mp Electricity generation, grid integration from wind
  • 88.50.Xy Social issues regarding wind energy
  • 88.50.gg Research and development
  • 88.50.gj Modeling, design
  • 88.50.gm Components
  • 88.50.gp Testing
  • 88.50.jj Small-scale wind farms
  • 88.50.jn Large-scale wind farms
  • 88.50.jp Off-shore wind farms
  • 88.60.−m Hydroelectric power
  • 88.60.J− Conventional hydropower
  • 88.60.K− Hydroturbines
  • 88.60.N− Emerging hydropower technologies
  • 88.60.jb Impoundment facilities, dams
  • 88.60.je Diversion facilities
  • 88.60.jg Pumped storage facilities
  • 88.60.kc Cross-flow turbines
  • 88.60.kf Francis hydropower turbines
  • 88.60.kj Free-flow turbines
  • 88.60.km Impulse turbines
  • 88.60.kp Pelton hydropower turbines
  • 88.60.kr Propeller turbines
  • 88.60.kt Reaction turbines
  • 88.60.nf Energy from ocean waves
  • 88.60.nh Tidal energy
  • 88.60.nj Marine thermal gradients
  • 88.60.nm Energy from ocean currents
  • 88.60.np Natural water flow in rivers
  • 88.60.nr Ocean thermal energy
  • 88.80.−q Energy delivery and storage
  • 88.80.Cd Grid-connected distributed energy resources
  • 88.80.F− Energy storage technologies
  • 88.80.H− Electric power transmission
  • 88.80.Kg Energy delivery infrastructure
  • 88.80.ff Batteries
  • 88.80.fh Supercapacitors
  • 88.80.fj Superconducting magnetic energy storage
  • 88.80.hh Transmission grids
  • 88.80.hj High-voltage direct current transmission
  • 88.80.hm ac power transmission
  • 88.80.hp Radio-frequency power transmission
  • 88.80.hr Superconducting cables
  • 88.80.ht Wireless power transmission
  • 88.85.−r Advanced vehicles
  • 88.85.Cd Fuel cell vehicles (FCVs)
  • 88.85.Fg Plug-in hybrid vehicles (HEVs)
  • 88.85.Hj Electric vehicles (EVs)
  • 88.85.J− Vehicle energy storage
  • 88.85.M− Alternative fuels for advanced vehicles
  • 88.85.Pq Fueling stations for advanced vehicles
  • 88.85.jk Lead-acid batteries
  • 88.85.jm Nickel-metal hydride batteries
  • 88.85.jp Ultracapacitors
  • 88.85.mb Biodiesel
  • 88.85.md Propane
  • 88.85.mf Natural gas
  • 88.85.mh Hydrogen
  • 88.85.mj Ethanol
  • 88.85.mn Fuel blends
  • 88.90.+t Other topics in renewable energy and applications

89.00.00 Other areas of applied and interdisciplinary physics

91.00.00 Solid earth physics

  • 91.10.−v Geodesy and gravity
  • 91.10.By Mathematical geodesy; general theory
  • 91.10.Da Cartography
  • 91.10.Fc Space and satellite geodesy; applications of global positioning systems
  • 91.10.Jf Topography; geometric observations
  • 91.10.Kg Crustal movements and deformation
  • 91.10.Lh Photogrammetry
  • 91.10.Nj Rotational variations; polar wobble
  • 91.10.Op Gravity anomalies; time variable gravity
  • 91.10.P− Geodetic techniques; gravimetric measurements and instruments
  • 91.10.Pp Geodetic techniques; gravimetric measurements and instruments
  • 91.10.Qm Harmonics of the gravity potential field; geopotential theory and determination
  • 91.10.Rn Rheology of lithosphere and mantle
  • 91.10.Sp Satellite orbits
  • 91.10.Tq Earth tides
  • 91.10.Vr Ocean/Earth/atmosphere/ hydrosphere/cryosphere interactions; mass balance
  • 91.10.Ws Reference systems
  • 91.10.Xa Global change from geodesy
  • 91.10.pa Atmospheric monitoring with geodetic techniques
  • 91.10.pc Ocean monitoring with geodetic techniques
  • 91.25.−r Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism; geoelectricity
  • 91.25.Cw Origins and models of the magnetic field; dynamo theories
  • 91.25.Dx Archeomagnetism
  • 91.25.Ey Interactions between exterior sources and interior properties
  • 91.25.F− Rock and mineral magnetism
  • 91.25.G− Spatial variations in geomagnetism
  • 91.25.Ga Spatial variations: all harmonics and anomalies
  • 91.25.Jc Spatial variations attributed to sea floor spreading
  • 91.25.L− Time variations in geomagnetism
  • 91.25.Le Time variations in geomagnetism
  • 91.25.Mf Magnetic field reversals: process and timescale
  • 91.25.N− Paleomagnetism
  • 91.25.Ng Paleomagnetism
  • 91.25.Ph Magnetostratigraphy
  • 91.25.Qi Geoelectricity, electromagnetic induction, and telluric currents
  • 91.25.Rt Magnetic anomalies; modeling and interpretations
  • 91.25.St Magnetic fabrics and anisotropy
  • 91.25.Th Reference fields: regional; global
  • 91.25.Ux Remagnetization
  • 91.25.Wb Geomagnetic induction
  • 91.25.Xg Geomagnetic excursion
  • 91.25.Za Core processes
  • 91.25.fa Biogenic magnetic minerals
  • 91.25.fd Environmental magnetism
  • 91.25.ga Harmonics and anomalies
  • 91.25.gj Attributed to seafloor spreading
  • 91.25.lc Rapid time variations
  • 91.25.lf Diurnal to decadal
  • 91.25.lj Secular and longer
  • 91.25.nc Paleointensity
  • 91.25.nf Applied to tectonics: regional; global
  • 91.25.nj Applied to geologic processes
  • 91.25.nn Paleomagnetic secular variation
  • 91.30.−f Seismology
  • 91.30.Ab Theory and modeling, computational seismology
  • 91.30.Bi Seismic sources (mechanisms, magnitude, moment frequency spectrum)
  • 91.30.Cd Body wave propagation
  • 91.30.Dk Seismicity
  • 91.30.Fn Surface waves and free oscillations
  • 91.30.Ga Subduction zones
  • 91.30.Hc Mid-ocean ridges
  • 91.30.Iv Transform faults
  • 91.30.Jk Tomography in seismology
  • 91.30.Ks Free oscillations (periods less than 12 hours)
  • 91.30.Mv Strong motions and shock waves
  • 91.30.Nw Tsunamis
  • 91.30.P− Earthquakes
  • 91.30.Px Earthquakes
  • 91.30.Rz Nuclear explosion seismology
  • 91.30.Tb Volcano seismology
  • 91.30.Uv Core and mantle seismology
  • 91.30.Vc Continental crust seismology
  • 91.30.Wx Lithosphere seismology
  • 91.30.Ye Oceanic crust seismology
  • 91.30.Za Paleoseismology
  • 91.30.pa Dynamics and mechanics
  • 91.30.pb Ground motions and engineering seismology
  • 91.30.pc Magnitudes and parameters
  • 91.30.pd Hazard assessment, forecasting, and prediction
  • 91.32.−m Rheology of the Earth
  • 91.32.Ac General aspects
  • 91.32.De Crust and lithosphere
  • 91.32.Gh Mantle
  • 91.32.Jk Friction of fault zones
  • 91.35.−x Earth’s interior structure and properties
  • 91.35.Cb Models of interior structure
  • 91.35.Dc Heat flow; geothermy
  • 91.35.Ed Structure of the Earth’s interior below the upper mantle
  • 91.35.Gf Structure of the crust and upper mantle
  • 91.35.Lj Composition and state of the Earth’s interior
  • 91.35.Nm Geochronology
  • 91.35.Pn Tomography of the Earth’s interior
  • 91.40.−k Volcanology
  • 91.40.Ac Geochemical modeling
  • 91.40.Bp Tephrochronology; ash deposits
  • 91.40.Dr Atmospheric effects
  • 91.40.Ft Eruption mechanisms
  • 91.40.Ge Hydrothermal systems
  • 91.40.Hw Lava rheology and morphology
  • 91.40.Jk Magma migration
  • 91.40.La Physics and chemistry of magma bodies
  • 91.40.Pc Thermodynamics in volcanology
  • 91.40.Qa Reactions and phase equilibria
  • 91.40.Rs Subduction zone processes
  • 91.40.St Mid-oceanic ridge processes
  • 91.40.Ta Intra-plate processes
  • 91.40.Uc Volcanoclastic deposits
  • 91.40.Vg Volcanic gases
  • 91.40.Wx Calderas
  • 91.40.Yt Remote sensing of volcanoes
  • 91.40.Zz Volcano monitoring; volcanic hazards and risks
  • 91.45.−c Tectonophysics
  • 91.45.Bg Planetary interiors
  • 91.45.C− Continental tectonics
  • 91.45.Cg Continental tectonics
  • 91.45.D− Plate tectonics
  • 91.45.Dh Plate tectonics
  • 91.45.Ei Neotectonics
  • 91.45.Fj Convection currents and mantle plumes
  • 91.45.G− Dynamics and mechanics of tectonics
  • 91.45.Ga Dynamics and mechanics of tectonics
  • 91.45.Hc Subduction and obduction zone processes
  • 91.45.Jg Hot spots, large igneous provinces, and flood basalt volcanism
  • 91.45.Kn Core processes
  • 91.45.Nc Evolution of the Earth
  • 91.45.Pt Slow vertical crustal movements (including isostasy and postglacial phenomena)
  • 91.45.Qv Tomography of plate tectonics
  • 91.45.Rg Heat generation and transport
  • 91.45.Sx Relations of gravity observations to tectonics and isostasy
  • 91.45.Ty Folds and Folding
  • 91.45.Vz Fractures and faults
  • 91.45.Wa Volcanic arcs
  • 91.45.X− Stresses in tectonophysics
  • 91.45.Xz Stresses in tectonophysics
  • 91.45.Yb Pluton emplacement
  • 91.45.ca General aspects
  • 91.45.cc Orogenic belts
  • 91.45.cf Continental margins and continental cratons
  • 91.45.ch Continental neotectonics
  • 91.45.cj Extensional, tectonics (rift basins)
  • 91.45.cn Strike-slip tectonics
  • 91.45.dc Plate boundaries: general aspects
  • 91.45.df Plate motions: general aspects
  • 91.45.dg Plate motions: past
  • 91.45.dk Plate motions: present and recent
  • 91.45.gd Seismotectonics
  • 91.45.gf Lithospheric dynamics; flexure
  • 91.45.gh Gravity and tectonics
  • 91.45.xa General aspects
  • 91.45.xc Crust and lithosphere
  • 91.45.xf Deep-seated stresses
  • 91.50.−r Marine geology and geophysics
  • 91.50.Ac Back-arc basin processes
  • 91.50.Bd Continental shelf and slope processes
  • 91.50.Cw Beach and coastal processes
  • 91.50.Ey Seafloor morphology, geology, and geophysics
  • 91.50.Ga Bathymetry, seafloor topology
  • 91.50.Hc Gas and hydrate systems
  • 91.50.Iv Marine magnetics and electromagnetics
  • 91.50.Jc Marine sediments, turbidity currents—processes and transport
  • 91.50.Kx Gravity and isostasy
  • 91.50.Ln Heat flow (benthic)
  • 91.50.Nc Littoral processes
  • 91.50.Ps Marine hydrogeology
  • 91.50.Qr Micropaleontology
  • 91.50.Rt Mid-ocean ridge processes
  • 91.50.Sn Ocean drilling
  • 91.50.Tb Oceanic hotspots and intra-plate volcanism
  • 91.50.Uv Oceanic plateaus and fracture zone processes
  • 91.50.Vx Ophiolites
  • 91.50.Wy Subduction zone processes
  • 91.50.Xz Submarine landslides
  • 91.50.Yf Submergence instruments, ROV, AUV, Submersibles, and ocean observatories
  • 91.55.−y Structural geology
  • 91.55.Ax Mechanics, theory and modeling
  • 91.55.Bc Continental neotectonics
  • 91.55.De Diapir and diapirism
  • 91.55.Fg Dynamics and mechanics of faulting
  • 91.55.Hj Folds and folding
  • 91.55.Jk Fractures and faults
  • 91.55.Ln Kinematics of crustal and mantle deformation
  • 91.55.Mb High strain deformation zones
  • 91.55.Nc Local crustal structure; regional crustal structure
  • 91.55.Pq Melanges
  • 91.55.Qr Mesoscopic fabrics
  • 91.55.Sn Pluton emplacement
  • 91.55.Tt Role of fluids
  • 91.55.Uv Remote sensing in structural geology
  • 91.60.−x Physical properties of rocks and minerals
  • 91.60.Ba Elasticity, fracture, and flow
  • 91.60.Dc Plasticity, diffusion, and creep
  • 91.60.Ed Crystal structure and defects, microstructure
  • 91.60.Fe Equations of state
  • 91.60.Gf High-pressure behavior
  • 91.60.Hg Phase changes
  • 91.60.Ki Thermal properties
  • 91.60.Lj Acoustic properties
  • 91.60.Mk Optical properties
  • 91.60.Np Permeability and porosity
  • 91.60.Pn Magnetic and electrical properties
  • 91.60.Qr Wave attenuation
  • 91.60.Tn Transport properties
  • 91.62.+g Biogeosciences
  • 91.62.−g Biogeosciences
  • 91.62.Bf Agricultural systems
  • 91.62.De Anoxic and hypoxic environments
  • 91.62.Fc Astrobiology and extraterrestrial materials
  • 91.62.Gk Biodiversity
  • 91.62.Jf Bioremediation
  • 91.62.Kt Biogeochemical kinetics
  • 91.62.La Carbon cycling, nitrogen cycling
  • 91.62.Mn Ecosystems, structure and dynamics, plant ecology
  • 91.62.Np Evolutionary geobiology
  • 91.62.Pq Geomicrobiology
  • 91.62.Qs Nutrients and nutrient cycling
  • 91.62.Rt Land pollution, soil pollution
  • 91.62.Ty Natural hazards
  • 91.62.Uv Life in extreme environments
  • 91.62.Xy Biosphere/atmosphere interactions
  • 91.65.−n Mineralogy and petrology
  • 91.65.An Mineral and crystal chemistry
  • 91.65.Br Geochemical cycles
  • 91.65.Cq Igneous petrology
  • 91.65.Dt Isotopic composition
  • 91.65.Ej Extrusive structures and rocks
  • 91.65.Fw Low-temperature geochemistry
  • 91.65.Gk Intrusive structures and rocks
  • 91.65.Hy Organic geochemistry
  • 91.65.Jn Layered magma chambers
  • 91.65.Kf Metamorphic petrology
  • 91.65.Lc Pressure-temperature-time paths
  • 91.65.My Fluid flow
  • 91.65.Nd Trace elements
  • 91.65.Pj Ultra-high pressure metamorphism
  • 91.65.Qr Ultra-high temperature metamorphism
  • 91.65.Rg Mineral occurrences and deposits
  • 91.65.Sn Meteorite mineralogy and petrology
  • 91.65.Ti Sedimentary petrology
  • 91.65.Vj Major element composition
  • 91.67.−y Geochemistry
  • 91.67.Bc Geochemical modeling
  • 91.67.De Reactions and phase equilibria
  • 91.67.F− Geochemical processes
  • 91.67.Fx Geochemical processes
  • 91.67.G− Chemical composition
  • 91.67.Gy Chemical composition
  • 91.67.Jk Geochemistry of hydrothermal systems
  • 91.67.Nc Geochemical cycles
  • 91.67.Pq Major and trace element geochemistry
  • 91.67.Qr Radiogenic isotope geochemistry
  • 91.67.Rx Stable isotope geochemistry
  • 91.67.St Fluid and melt inclusion geochemistry
  • 91.67.Ty Sedimentary geochemistry
  • 91.67.Uv Organic and biogenic geochemistry
  • 91.67.Vf Low-temperature geochemistry
  • 91.67.fc Subduction zone
  • 91.67.ff Mid-oceanic ridge
  • 91.67.fh Intra-plate
  • 91.67.fk Alteration and weathering
  • 91.67.fm Mantle
  • 91.67.gb Earth’s core
  • 91.67.gd Continental crust
  • 91.67.gf Oceanic crust
  • 91.67.gh Hydrosphere
  • 91.67.gj Biosphere
  • 91.67.gl Mantle
  • 91.67.gn Meteorites
  • 91.67.gp Aerosols and particles
  • 91.70.−c Information related to geologic time
  • 91.70.B− Cenozoic
  • 91.70.Bf Cenozoic
  • 91.70.D− Mesozoic
  • 91.70.Dh Mesozoic
  • 91.70.F− Paleozoic
  • 91.70.Fj Paleozoic
  • 91.70.H− Precambrian
  • 91.70.Hm Precambrian
  • 91.70.bc Neogene
  • 91.70.bg Paleogene
  • 91.70.db Cretaceous
  • 91.70.de Jurassic
  • 91.70.dg Triassic
  • 91.70.fb Permian
  • 91.70.fd Carboniferous
  • 91.70.ff Devonian
  • 91.70.fh Silurian
  • 91.70.fk Ordovician
  • 91.70.fn Cambrian
  • 91.70.hc Proterozoic
  • 91.70.hf Archean
  • 91.80.+d Geochronology
  • 91.80.−d Geochronology
  • 91.80.Cb Quarternary geochronology
  • 91.80.Ef Sidereal geochronology
  • 91.80.Hj Radioisotope geochronology, isotopic disequilibrium dating
  • 91.80.Kc Chemical and biological geochronology
  • 91.80.Mn Geomorphological geochronology
  • 91.80.Pq Correlative geochronology
  • 91.80.Rx Thermochronology
  • 91.80.St Tephrochronology
  • 91.80.Uv Cosmogenic-nuclide exposure dating
  • 91.80.Vw Extinct radionuclide geochronology
  • 91.80.Wx Sedimentary geochronology
  • 91.90.+p Other topics in solid Earth physics

92.00.00 Hydrospheric and atmospheric geophysics

  • 92.05.−x General aspects of oceanography
  • 92.05.Bc Analytical modeling and laboratory experiments
  • 92.05.Df Climate and inter-annual variability
  • 92.05.Ek Long term variability; Heinrich events
  • 92.05.Fg Diurnal, seasonal and annual cycles
  • 92.05.Hj Physical and chemical properties of seawater (salinity, density, temperature)
  • 92.05.Jn Ocean energy extraction
  • 92.05.Lf Hydrothermal systems
  • 92.10.−c Physical oceanography
  • 92.10.A− Circulation and currents
  • 92.10.Bf Physical properties of seawater
  • 92.10.Cg Capillary waves
  • 92.10.Dh Deep ocean processes
  • 92.10.Ei Coriolis effects
  • 92.10.Fj Upper ocean and mixed layer processes
  • 92.10.Gk El Nino
  • 92.10.H− Ocean waves and oscillations
  • 92.10.Hm Ocean waves and oscillations
  • 92.10.Iv Ocean influence of Earth’s rotation
  • 92.10.Jn Seiches
  • 92.10.Kp Sea-air energy exchange processes
  • 92.10.Lq Turbulence, diffusion, and mixing processes in oceanography
  • 92.10.Mr Thermohaline structure and circulation
  • 92.10.Ns Fine structure and microstructure in oceanography
  • 92.10.Oc Benthic boundary layers, ocean bottom processes
  • 92.10.Pt Optical properties of sea water
  • 92.10.Rw Sea ice (mechanics and air/sea/ice exchange processes)
  • 92.10.Sx Coastal, estuarine, and near shore processes
  • 92.10.Ty Fronts and jets
  • 92.10.Ua Overflows
  • 92.10.Vz Underwater sound
  • 92.10.Wa Sediment transport
  • 92.10.Xc Ocean fog
  • 92.10.Yb Hydrography
  • 92.10.Zf Upwelling and convergences
  • 92.10.ab General circulation
  • 92.10.ad Deep water formation and circulation
  • 92.10.af Thermohaline convection
  • 92.10.ah Ocean currents; Eastern boundary currents, Western boundary currents
  • 92.10.ak Eddies and mesoscale processes
  • 92.10.am El Nino Southern Oscillation
  • 92.10.hb Surface waves and tides
  • 92.10.hd Capillary waves
  • 92.10.hf Planetary waves, Rossby waves
  • 92.10.hh Kelvin waves
  • 92.10.hj Internal and inertial waves
  • 92.10.hk Seiches
  • 92.10.hl Tsunamis
  • 92.10.hp Sea level variations
  • 92.20.−h Chemical and biological oceanography
  • 92.20.Bk Aerosols
  • 92.20.C− Chemistry of the ocean
  • 92.20.Cm Chemistry of the ocean
  • 92.20.Gr Ocean energy extraction
  • 92.20.Hs Anoxic environments
  • 92.20.Iv Benthic processes, sea-bottom processes
  • 92.20.J− Biology of the ocean
  • 92.20.Jt Biology of the ocean
  • 92.20.Kv Photochemistry
  • 92.20.Lw Photosynthesis
  • 92.20.Mx Physicochemical properties
  • 92.20.Ny Marine pollution
  • 92.20.Ox Hypoxic environment
  • 92.20.Pz Bacteria
  • 92.20.Rb Plankton
  • 92.20.Sg Biogeochemical cycles
  • 92.20.Td Radioactivity and radioisotopes
  • 92.20.Uv Gases in chemical oceanography
  • 92.20.Vn Sedimentation
  • 92.20.Wx Trace elements
  • 92.20.Xy Carbon cycling
  • 92.20.cb Chemical speciation and complexation, chemosynthesis
  • 92.20.cd Chemical tracers
  • 92.20.cf Marine organic chemistry
  • 92.20.cg Marine inorganic chemistry
  • 92.20.ch Photochemistry, photosynthesis
  • 92.20.cj Oxidation and reduction reactions
  • 92.20.cn Analytical chemistry
  • 92.20.cp Natural products chemistry
  • 92.20.jb Bacteria, microbiology and microbial ecology
  • 92.20.jd Symbiosis
  • 92.20.jf Phytoplankton
  • 92.20.jh Zooplankton
  • 92.20.jj Sorptive scavenging
  • 92.20.jm Population dynamics and ecology
  • 92.20.jp Ecosysystems, structure, dynamics and modeling
  • 92.20.jq Foodwebs: structure and dynamics
  • 92.20.ju Nutrients and nutrient cycling
  • 92.30.+m Paleoceanography
  • 92.30.−m Paleoceanography
  • 92.30.Bc Abrupt climate change, stadial-interstadial transitions
  • 92.30.De Anthropogenic effects
  • 92.30.Ef Atmospheric transport and circulation, aerosols
  • 92.30.Gh Biogeochemical cycles
  • 92.30.Hj Corals
  • 92.30.Iv Continental climate records
  • 92.30.Jh Dendrochronology
  • 92.30.La El Nino Southern Oscillation
  • 92.30.Mc Glacial and interglacial oceanography, ice cores
  • 92.30.Np Greenhouse gases
  • 92.30.Pq Insolation forcing
  • 92.30.Qr Micropaleontology
  • 92.30.Rx Paleoecology
  • 92.30.St Paleocene/Eocene thermal maximum
  • 92.30.Tq Sea surface temperature
  • 92.30.Uv Thermohaline convection
  • 92.30.Vn Upwelling
  • 92.30.Wx Palynology, pollen, spores and other palynomorphs, living or fossil
  • 92.30.Xy Speleothems, stalagmites, stalactites
  • 92.40.−t Hydrology and glaciology; cryosphere
  • 92.40.Aa Anthropogenic effects
  • 92.40.Bc Chemistry of fresh water
  • 92.40.Cy Modeling; general theory
  • 92.40.De Drought
  • 92.40.E− Precipitation
  • 92.40.Ea Precipitation
  • 92.40.Fb Rivers, runoff, and streamflow
  • 92.40.Gc Erosion and sedimentation; sediment transport
  • 92.40.Ha Debris flow and landslides
  • 92.40.Iv Desertification
  • 92.40.Je Evapotranspiration
  • 92.40.K− Ground water
  • 92.40.Kf Groundwater
  • 92.40.Lg Soil moisture and temperature
  • 92.40.Ni Limnology
  • 92.40.Oj Eco-hydrology; plant ecology
  • 92.40.P− Geomorphology
  • 92.40.Pb Geomorphology
  • 92.40.Q− Surface water, water resources
  • 92.40.Qk Surface water, water resources
  • 92.40.Rm Snow
  • 92.40.Sn Ice
  • 92.40.V− Glaciology
  • 92.40.Vq Glaciology
  • 92.40.We Hydrologic cycles and budgets
  • 92.40.Xx Irrigation; dams
  • 92.40.Yy Wetlands
  • 92.40.Zg Hydrometeorology, hydroclimatology
  • 92.40.ed Snow
  • 92.40.eg Rain, hail
  • 92.40.kc Ground water quality
  • 92.40.ke Ground water transport
  • 92.40.kh Aquifers
  • 92.40.kj Groundwater/surface water interactions
  • 92.40.km Groundwater hydrology
  • 92.40.kp Groundwater hydraulics
  • 92.40.pg Fluvial
  • 92.40.pj Hillslope
  • 92.40.qc Surface water quality
  • 92.40.qf Water supply, reservoirs
  • 92.40.qh Rivers
  • 92.40.qj Lakes, limnology
  • 92.40.qn Ponds
  • 92.40.qp Floods, runoff, and stream flow
  • 92.40.vk Glaciers
  • 92.40.vr Icebergs
  • 92.40.vs Permafrost, frozen ground
  • 92.40.vt Tundra
  • 92.40.vu Cryobiology
  • 92.40.vv Ice cores, ice sheets, ice shelves
  • 92.40.vw Snow melt, avalanches
  • 92.40.vx Sea ice
  • 92.60.−e Properties and dynamics of the atmosphere; meteorology
  • 92.60.Aa Modeling and model calibration
  • 92.60.Bh General circulation
  • 92.60.Cc Ocean/atmosphere interactions, air/sea constituent fluxes
  • 92.60.Dj Gravity waves, tides, and compressional waves
  • 92.60.Ek Convection, turbulence, and diffusion
  • 92.60.Fm Boundary layer structure and processes
  • 92.60.Gn Winds and their effects
  • 92.60.H− Atmospheric composition, structure, and properties
  • 92.60.Hp Chemical composition and chemical interactions
  • 92.60.Iv Paleoclimatology
  • 92.60.J− Water in the atmosphere
  • 92.60.Jq Water in the atmosphere
  • 92.60.Kc Land/atmosphere interactions
  • 92.60.Ls Ion chemistry of the atmosphere
  • 92.60.Mt Particles and aerosols
  • 92.60.N− Cloud physics and chemistry
  • 92.60.Nv Cloud physics and chemistry
  • 92.60.Ox Tropical meteorology
  • 92.60.Pw Atmospheric electricity, lightning
  • 92.60.Qx Storms
  • 92.60.Ry Climatology, climate change and variability
  • 92.60.Sz Air quality and air pollution
  • 92.60.Ta Electromagnetic wave propagation
  • 92.60.Uy Polar meteorology
  • 92.60.Vb Radiative processes, solar radiation
  • 92.60.Wc Weather analysis and prediction
  • 92.60.Xg Stratosphere/troposphere interactions
  • 92.60.Zc Volcanic effects
  • 92.60.ha Exospheric composition and chemistry
  • 92.60.hb Thermospheric composition and chemistry, energy deposition
  • 92.60.hc Mesospheric composition, energy deposition, constituent transport and chemistry
  • 92.60.hd Stratospheric composition and chemistry
  • 92.60.hf Tropospheric composition and chemistry, constituent transport and chemistry
  • 92.60.hg Constituent sources and sinks
  • 92.60.hh Acoustic gravity waves, tides, and compressional waves
  • 92.60.hk Convection, turbulence, and diffusion
  • 92.60.hn Geochemical cycles
  • 92.60.hv Pressure, density, and temperature
  • 92.60.hw Airglow and aurorae
  • 92.60.hx Other upper atmospheric phenomena: red sprites; blue jets; atmospheric gamma ray and intense VHF emissions
  • 92.60.jc Evaporation
  • 92.60.jf Precipitation
  • 92.60.jk Humidity
  • 92.60.nc Cloud optics
  • 92.60.nf Cloud/radiation interaction
  • 92.70.−j Global change
  • 92.70.Aa Abrupt/rapid climate change
  • 92.70.Bc Land/atmosphere interactions
  • 92.70.Cp Atmosphere
  • 92.70.Er Biogeochemical processes
  • 92.70.Gt Climate dynamics
  • 92.70.Ha Cryospheric change
  • 92.70.Iv Geomorphology and weathering
  • 92.70.Jw Oceans, sea level change
  • 92.70.Kb Regional climate change
  • 92.70.Ly Water cycles
  • 92.70.Mn Impacts of global change; global warming
  • 92.70.Np Global climate modeling
  • 92.70.Pq Earth system modeling
  • 92.70.Qr Solar variability impact
  • 92.70.St Land cover change
  • 92.90.+x Other topics in hydrospheric and atmospheric geophysics

93.00.00 Geophysical observations, instrumentation, and techniques

  • 93.30.−w Information related to geographical regions
  • 93.30.Bz Africa
  • 93.30.Ca Antarctica
  • 93.30.Db Asia
  • 93.30.Fd Australia
  • 93.30.Ge Europe
  • 93.30.Hf North America
  • 93.30.Jg South America
  • 93.30.Kh Large islands (e.g., Greenland)
  • 93.30.Li Arctic Ocean
  • 93.30.Mj Atlantic Ocean
  • 93.30.Nk Indian Ocean
  • 93.30.Pm Pacific Ocean
  • 93.30.Qn Southern Ocean
  • 93.30.Rp Regional seas
  • 93.30.Sq Polar regions
  • 93.30.Tr Temperate regions
  • 93.30.Vs Tropical regions
  • 93.55.+z International organizations, national and international programs
  • 93.65.+e Data acquisition and storage
  • 93.85.+q Instrumentation and techniques for geophysical research
  • 93.85.−q Instruments and techniques for geophysical research: Exploration geophysics
  • 93.85.Bc Computational methods and data processing, data acquisition and storage
  • 93.85.De Exploration of continental structures
  • 93.85.Fg Downhole methods
  • 93.85.Hj Gravity methods
  • 93.85.Jk Magnetic and electrical methods
  • 93.85.Ly Exploration of oceanic structures
  • 93.85.Np Radioactivity methods
  • 93.85.Pq Remote sensing in exploration geophysics
  • 93.85.Rt Seismic methods
  • 93.85.Tf Oil prospecting, pipelines, and conduits
  • 93.90.+y Other topics in geophysical observations, instrumentation, and techniques

94.00.00 Physics of the ionosphere and magnetosphere

95.00.00 Fundamental astronomy and astrophysics; instrumentation, techniques, and astronomical observations

96.00.00 Solar system; planetology

97.00.00 Stars

98.00.00 Stellar systems; interstellar medium; galactic and extragalactic objects and systems; the universe

99.00.00

  • 99.10.−x Errata and other corrections
  • 99.10.Cd Errata
  • 99.10.Fg Publisher’s note
  • 99.10.Jk Corrected article
  • 99.10.Ln Retraction
  • 99.10.Np Editorial note
  • 99.10.Qr Addenda

PACS (Physics and Astronomy Classification Scheme) was developed by the American Institute of Physics and is used to identify fields and sub-fields of physics.

© 1918–2017 Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk
Email: ufn@ufn.ru Editorial office contacts About the journal Terms and conditions