Surface-plasma method for the production of negative ion beams
V.G. Dudnikov†a,b aNovosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation bBudker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, prosp. akad. Lavrenteva 11, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation
Increased interest in development of negative ions sources is related to the emergence of important applications of negative-ion beams. The list of those applications includes primarily tandem accelerators, including high-energy implantation and accelerator-based mass spectrometry, supercollimated beams, charge-exchange injection into cyclic accelerators and storage rings, charge-exchange extraction of beams from cyclotron, high-energy neutrals in plasma systems, charge-exchange of beams distribution, etc. Development of the sources of negative ions and their usage in academic research and industry are reviewed. Physical bases and designs of surface-plasma sources of negative ions alongside the history of their development are presented.