Dark matter in galaxies
a Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Physics, Vorobevy gory, Moscow, 119992, Russian Federation
b Lomonosov Moscow State University, Shternberg State Astronomical Institute, Universitetskii prosp. 13, Moscow, 119889, Russian Federation
c Volgograd State University, Universitetskii prosp. 100, Volgograd, 400062, Russian Federation
d Institute of Astronomy, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Pyatnitskaya 48, Moscow, 119017, Russian Federation
e Ural Federal University named after the First President of Russia B N Yeltsin, prosp. Mira 19, Ekaterinburg, 620002, Russian Federation
Dark matter in galaxies, its abundance and its distribution remain a subject of long-standing discussion—against the background of the fact that neither dark matter particles nor dark matter bodies have yet been found. Experts' opinions range from "there exist a very large number of completely dark galaxies" to "nonbaryonic dark matter does not exist at all in any significant amounts". This review discusses the astronomical evidences for the existence of dark matter and its connection with visible matter as well as examining attempts to estimate its mass and distribution in galaxies from photometry, dynamics, gravitational lensing, etc. observations (the cosmological aspects of the existence of dark matter are not considered in the review). In the authors' view, the presence of dark matter in and around galaxies is a well-established fact. The review concludes with an overview of mechanisms by which a dark halo may influence intragalactic processes.