Generation of cluster beams
Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Izhorskaya 13/19, Moscow, 127412, Russian Federation
The processes are considered in a cluster plasma consisting of a dense plasma of a buffer gas and a metal admixture. These processes involving clusters in a gas or plasma include nucleation processes in a supersaturated vapor, formation of metallic clusters in a dense gas from metal-containing compounds, and chemical processes in the course of this conversion, processes of cluster charging in a plasma and under the action of an electron beam. The basic methods are analyzed for cluster generation including formation and growth of clusters in free jet expansion of a gas, under laser action on the metallic surface, and growth of clusters in a plasma resulted from injection of metal-containing molecules into a plasma. Some applications of cluster beams are discussed, which include fabrication of thin films, new materials, and creation of a hot nonuniform plasma.