Reviews of topical problems

Generation, amplification, and detection of infrared and optical radiation by quantum-mechanical systems

, ,
Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky prosp. 53, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation

Introduction 702
I. Methods of Obtaining Negative Temperature States 703
1. Negative Temperature 703
2. Selection of Molecules in Molecular Beams by Means of Inhomogeneous Electric or Magnetic Fields 705
3. Excitation of Gas Molecules by Means of a Gas Discharge 705
4. Pulse Method of Obtaining Negative Temperatures in Semiconductors 708
5. Obtaining Negative Temperatures in Semiconductors between Levels in a Single Band ("Negative Mass Amplifiers") 713
6. Obtaining Negative Temperatures by Double-Resonance Techniques 715
II. Generation and Amplification of Electromagnetic Waves by Negative Temperature Systems 718
7. Interaction of Radiation with Negative Temperature Systems 718
8. Oscillation Conditions 719
9. Resonators 721
10. Amplifiers 723
11. Quantum-Mechanical Radiation Detectors 725
Conclusion 726
Cited Literature 726

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Fulltext is also available at DOI: 10.1070/PU1961v003n05ABEH003322
PACS: 41.20.Jb, 78.20.−e (all)
DOI: 10.1070/PU1961v003n05ABEH003322
Citation: Basov N G, Krokhin O N, Popov Yu M "Generation, amplification, and detection of infrared and optical radiation by quantum-mechanical systems" Sov. Phys. Usp. 3 702–728 (1961)
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Оригинал: Басов Н Г, Крохин О Н, Попов Ю М «Генерация, усиление и индикация инфракрасного и оптического излучений с помощью квантовых систем» УФН 72 161–209 (1960); DOI: 10.3367/UFNr.0072.196010a.0161

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