Supercritical fluid of metal vapors plasma, rare gases and excitons
A.S. Shumikhin Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Izhorskaya 13/19, Moscow, 127412, Russian Federation
The vapor—liquid and dielectric—metal transitions are considered, as well as the metallization process — exponential growth of conductivity under compression in metal vapors. The mechanism of "cold ionization" is investigated on the basis of the hypothesis about the existence of an electron jellium — the rudiment of the conduction band in the gas phase. A series of physical models is proposed which combined by an approach to describe the interaction of atoms as cohesive, collective, caused by the presence of an electron jellium. The critical points parameters and binodals of most metals in the periodic table, including alkali metals, hydrogen, and excitons, were calculated. Useful relationships between solid-state characteristics of metals and parameters of critical points were established. A comparison of theoretical calculations and experimental results were made for the equations of metal vapor state and conductivity at critical points, on binodals, as well as on near-critical isotherms, taking into account the processes of "cold" and thermal ionization. A model of "jump-like" metallization of inert gases under compression is proposed, which is similar in nature to the Mott transition. It is concluded that metal vapors in the vicinity of the critical point are the gaseous metal due to the presence of the "cold ionization" process.