Regular measurements of cosmic ray fluxes in the atmosphere have been performed at the Lebedev Physical Institute since 1957. These experiments are briefly described. In the atmosphere, secondary fluxes of charged particles are detected, which are mainly (more than 99%) produced by primary protons and nuclei. Long-term (11- and 22-year) changes in cosmic ray fluxes in the atmosphere produced by primary protons and nuclei and in primary electron fluxes are analyzed. Data on primary electrons are obtained using high-altitude balloons and satellites. The analysis shows that the time dependences of positively and negatively charged particles in the heliosphere have the same form, i.e., they are modulated in the same way. This result contradicts the generally accepted model of cosmic ray modulation in the heliosphere, which should be significantly modified.
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Keywords: cosmic rays, solar activity, heliosphere, modulation PACS:96.50.S−, 96.50.Xy, 96.60.lv (all) DOI:10.3367/UFNe.2021.06.039215 URL: https://ufn.ru/en/articles/2022/9/g/ Citation: Stozhkov Yu I, Маkhmutov V S, Svirzhevsky N S "Balloon studies of cosmic rays at the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS" Phys. Usp.65 (9) (2022)
Received: 18th, April 2021, accepted: 16th, June 2021