In memory of Vladimir Evgen'evich Fortov. Reviews of topical problems

Supercritical fluid of metal vapor plasmas, rare gases, and excitons

Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Izhorskaya 13/19, Moscow, 127412, Russian Federation

We discuss vapor—liquid and dielectric—metal transitions and the metallization process via an exponential increase in conductivity under compression in metal vapors. We investigate the `cold ionization' mechanism based on a proposed hypothesis on electron jellium existing as a seed of the conduction band in the gas phase. A number of physical models are proposed that combine methods to describe the interaction of atoms as cohesive and collective, caused by the presence of the electron jellium. The parameters of critical points and binodals are calculated for most metals in the Mendeleev periodic table, as well as for hydrogen and excitons. Useful relations between solid-state characteristics of metals and the parameters of critical points are established. Theoretical calculations are compared with experimental results for the equation of state of metal vapors and the conductivity at the critical points, on the binodal, and on near-critical isotherms, with the cold and thermal ionization processes taken into account. We propose the model of a 'jump-like' metallization of inert gases under compression, similar in nature to the Mott transition. We conclude that, in the vicinity of the critical point, metal vapors exhibit properties of metals due to the presence of the cold ionization process.

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Fulltext is also available at DOI: 10.3367/UFNe.2020.08.038825
Keywords: supercritical fluid, vapor—liquid (dielectric—metal) phase transition, cohesion, electron jellium, metallization
PACS: 52.25.Kn, 52.27.Gr, 64.10.+h, 64.60.F−, 64.70.F−, 71.30.+h, 72.15.−v (all)
DOI: 10.3367/UFNe.2020.08.038825
Citation: Khomkin A L, Shumikhin A S "Supercritical fluid of metal vapor plasmas, rare gases, and excitons" Phys. Usp. 64 1125–1148 (2021)
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Received: 28th, May 2020, revised: 5th, July 2020, 21st, August 2020

Оригинал: Хомкин А Л, Шумихин А С «Сверхкритический флюид плазмы паров металлов, инертных газов и экситонов» УФН 191 1187–1211 (2021); DOI: 10.3367/UFNr.2020.08.038825

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