Measurements of the magnetic properties of conduction electrons
V.M. Pudalov Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky prosp. 53, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation
We consider various methods and techniques of measuring electron magnetization and susceptibility, which are used in experimental condensed matter physics. The list of considered methods for macroscopic measurements includes magnetomechanic, electromagnetic, modulation-type, and thermodynamic methods based on chemical potential variation measurements. We also consider local methods of magnetic measurements based on spin Hall effects and nitrogen-substituted vacancies (NV-centers). Scanning probe magnetometers-microscopes are considered, such as the magnetic resonance force microscope, SQUID microscope, and Hall microscope. The review focuses on spin magnetization measurements of electrons in nonmagnetic materials and systems, particulary in low-dimensional electron systems in semiconductors and in nanosystems, which have come to the forefront in recent years.
Keywords: spin magnetization, spin susceptibility, conduction electrons, measurements of magnetic properties PACS:07.55.Jg, 75.70.−i, 85.75.−d (all) DOI:10.3367/UFNe.2020.05.038771 URL: https://ufn.ru/en/articles/2021/1/b/ Citation: Pudalov V M "Measurements of the magnetic properties of conduction electrons" Phys. Usp.64 3–27 (2021)