Progress in the fabrication technology of normal incidence multilayer interference mirrors permits the traditional optical methods of microscopy, astronomy and lithography to be transferred to the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, wavelength: 10—200 nm) and the long-wavelength part of soft X-ray (SXR, wavelength: 2—10 nm) ranges. Due to the short wavelength and properties of interaction with the substance, the radiation of these ranges provides unique opportunities in nanophysics, nanotechnology, and nanodiagnostics of matter. To use the potential of a short wavelength in full, diffraction-limited optics is required. Compared to traditional optics, its accuracy must be at least two orders of magnitude higher. The article provides an analysis of the real capabilities of traditional methods of making and studying precision optical elements, reports on the methods of fabrication and characterization of diffraction-limited optics for the VUV and SXR ranges developed at IPM RAS. Examples of the use of this optics for the tasks of extraterrestrial astronomy, X-ray microscopy and lithography are given.
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Keywords: multilayer X-ray mirror, diffraction quality optics, interferometry, aspherical surface, ion etching, roughness, X-ray microscopy, astronomy, lithography PACS:06.30.−k DOI:10.3367/UFNe.2019.05.038601 URL: https://ufn.ru/en/articles/2020/1/f/ Citation: Chkhalo N I, Malyshev I V, Pestov A E, Polkovnikov V N, Salashchenko N N, Toropov M N "Diffraction limited X-ray optics: technology, metrology, applications" Phys. Usp.63 67–82 (2020)