X-ray diffraction imaging of defects in topography (microscopy) studies
I.A. Smirnova Institute of Solid-State Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region, Russian Federation
This review examines how the X-ray diffraction images of crystal lattice defects form and acquire structure when using X-ray topography methods. The description approaches (beam optics and wave optics) and application fields of the geometrical and diffraction optics of a real crystal are analyzed. Specific experimental images of dislocations and other defects are used as examples to demonstrate the role of various diffraction effects (wave reflection from lattice distortions, diffraction focusing, channeling) in determining the nature of the image formed. The potential for obtaining quantitative information on defect parameters is discussed.