Problems of probabilistic topology: the statistics of knots and non-commutative random walks
Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Kosygina 2, Moscow, 119334, Russian Federation
This paper reviews the state of affairs in a modern branch of mathematical physics called probabilistic topology. In particular we consider the following problems: (i) we stimate the probability of trivial knot formation on a lattice using the Kauffman algebraic invariants and show the connection of this problem with the thermodynamic properties of 2D disordered Potts model; (ii) we investigate the limiting behavior of random walks in multiconnected spaces and on non-commutative groups related to knot theory. We discuss the application of the above-mentioned problems in the statistical physics of polymer chains. On the basis of non-commutative probability theory we derive some new results in the statistical physics of entangled polymer chains which unite rigorous mathematical facts with intuitive physical arguments.