Nonlinear Brownian motion
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Physics, Vorobevy gory, Moscow, 119992, Russian Federation
The theory of Brownian motion as described by nonlinear Langevin equations and the corresponding Fokker-Planck equations is discussed. The general problems of the theory of nonlinear Brownian motion considered are: Brownian motion in a medium with nonlinear friction; the critical analysis of three forms of the relevant Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations (Ito’s form, Stratonovich’s form, and the kinetic form); the Smoluchowski equations and master equations for different cases; two methods of transition from master equation to Fokker-Planck equation; master equations for one-step processes; traditional and nontraditional definition of transition probabilities; evolution of free energy and entropy in Brownian motion; Lyapunov functionals. The following particular examples are considered: Brownian motion in self-oscillatory systems; H-theorem for the van der Pol oscillator; S-theorem; oscillator with inertial nonlinearity; bifurcation of energy of the limiting cycle; oscillator with multistable stationary states; oscillators in discrete time; bifurcations of energy of the limiting cycle and the period of oscillations; criterion of instability upon transition to discrete time, based on the H-theorem; Brownian motion of quantum atoms oscillators in the equilibrium electromagnetic field; Brownian motion in chemically reacting systems; partially ionised plasmas; the Malthus-Verhulst process.