Reviews of topical problems

Nonlocal (fractional-differential) model of cosmic ray transport in the interstellar medium

  a,   b, §  c
a Ul'yanovsk State University, ul. L. Tolstogo 42, Ulyanovsk, 432700, Russian Federation
b Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky prosp. 53, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation
c Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (National Research University), Institutskii per. 9, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, 141701, Russian Federation

Mathematical modeling of the propagation of charged particles in the interstellar medium is a key aspect of the physics of cosmic rays. Improvements in measuring systems and enhancement of statistics via the results of extraterrestrial astronomy stimulate regular revisions of the computational models. Most of the currently used approaches are based on the local model of normal diffusion, which is attracting growing criticism. Reservations about this model arise because, first, it is in conflict with the relativistic principle of maximum speed and, second, it ignores specific spatial correlations in the properties of the turbulent interstellar medium. In this regard, in a previous review article by the first author (Physics—Uspekhi 56 1074 (2013)), some arguments were adduced in favor of a nonlocal model of cosmic ray transport based on fractional differential operators. In this review, we continue expounding on the physical and mathematical properties of the fractional differential theory, with more attention focused on the procedure for incorporating the features of the interstellar medium into nonlocal operators. New results obtained in the framework of this approach are presented, compared, and discussed.

Typically, an English fulltext is available in about 3 months from the date of publication of the original article.

Keywords: cosmic rays, nonlocal model, fractional differential operator, turbulence, fractal medium, energy spectrum, anisotropy
PACS: 02.50.−r, 05.40.Fb, 98.70.Sa (all)
DOI: 10.3367/UFNe.2021.12.039118
Citation: Uchaikin V V, Erlykin A D, Sibatov R T "Nonlocal (fractional-differential) model of cosmic ray transport in the interstellar medium" Phys. Usp. 66 (3) (2023)

Received: 16th, July 2021, revised: 6th, October 2021, 3rd, December 2021

Оригинал: Учайкин В В, Ерлыкин А Д, Сибатов Р Т «Нелокальная (дробно-дифференциальная) модель переноса космических лучей в межзвёздной среде» УФН 193 233–278 (2023); DOI: 10.3367/UFNr.2021.12.039118

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