X-ray diffraction methods for structural diagnostics of materials: progress and achievements
G.V. Fetisov Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Chemistry, Leninskie Gory 1, str. 3, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation
Development of X-ray diffractometry at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries is presented. The review covers instrumentation development for structural studies based on the usage of both standard continuously radiating X-ray generators and state-of-the-art sources of ultrashort and ultra-bright X-ray pulses. The latter technique enables investigation of the structural dynamics of condensed matter in a 4D space-time continuum with a resolution of up to a tenth of femtosecond. New engineering approaches to enhancing sensitivity, accuracy, and efficiency of X-ray diffraction experiments are discussed including new and promising X-rays sources, reflective collimating and focusing X-ray optics, fast low-noise and radiation-resistant position-sensitive X-ray detectors, as well as a new generation of X-ray diffractometers developed based on these elements. Presentation is focused on modern engineering solutions that enable academic and applied-research laboratories to perform on-site the X-ray diffraction studies that earlier were only feasible using synchrotron radiation sources at international resource sharing centers.
Keywords: X-ray diffraction, synchrotron radiation, X-ray diffractometers, pulse X-ray sources, laser-plasma X-ray sources, alternative X-ray sources, X-ray free-electron lasers, reflective X-ray optics, multilayer thin-film X-ray reflectors, semiconductor position-sensitive X-ray detectors, two-dimensional hybrid pixel detectors PACS:07.85.−m, 42.55.Vc, 61.05.C− (all) DOI:10.3367/UFNe.2018.10.038435 URL: https://ufn.ru/en/articles/2020/1/b/ Citation: Fetisov G V "X-ray diffraction methods for structural diagnostics of materials: progress and achievements" Phys. Usp.63 2–32 (2020)