Creation of the FIAN Neutrino Laboratory and underground laboratories
Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, prosp. 60-letiya Oktyabrya 7a, Moscow, 117312, Russian Federation
This paper describes the history of how the FIAN Neutrino Laboratory was created and how the key methods, later to underlie the construction of BUST (Baksan Underground Scintillation Telescope), ASD (Artemovsk Scintillation Detector), LSD (Liquid Scintillation Detector) and LVD (Large Volume Detector) underground facilities, were developed and first implemented. This work, initiated by G.T.’Zatsepin, was crucial for the development of underground physics and gave the Institute of Nuclear Research, RAS, a leadership role in experiments to study stellar collapse neutrinos. The paper discusses underground physics as an effective method of studying a wide class of rare processes related to cosmic rays, neutrino physics, neutrino astrophysics, and elementary particles. The latest LVD and LSD results on the search for stellar collapse neutrinos are discussed, and research on cosmic ray muon characteristics and on muon interaction products at various depths underground is reviewed.