N.M. Shubinb aLebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky prosp. 53, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation bMoscow State Institute of Electronic Technology (Technical University), Zelenograd, Moscow, Russian Federation
This paper reviews how solid-state or molecular structures in which information transformation processes are governed by quantum mechanical principles can be used to construct logic gates which, similar to classical complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS), structures do not consume power when in a stationary state. In the first generation quantum analogs of CMOS gates, logical state switching occurs by fast quantum-mechanical tunneling processes, but the transfer characteristics are determined by classical diffusion-drift carrier transport. The second generation quantum analogs of CMOS schemes are open quantum systems in which charge carrier transport occurs coherently. The development of atomic precision lithography technology will allow wide use of quantum molecular logic gates in traditional computer architectures.
Keywords: quantum transport, resonant tunneling, quantum interference, non-Hermitian Hamiltonian, PT-symmetry, exceptional point, coalescence of resonances, logic gates, complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) transistor, quantum inverter, switching voltage, transfer characteristics, nanoelectronics, molecular electronics PACS:03.65.Nk, 03.65.Xp, 85.35.−p, 85.65.+h (all) DOI:10.3367/UFNe.2017.12.038310 URL: https://ufn.ru/en/articles/2018/11/i/ Citation: Gorbatsevich A A, Shubin N M "Quantum logic gates" Phys. Usp.61 1100–1115 (2018)