Reviews of topical problems

Attosecond electromagnetic pulses: generation, measurement, and application. Generation of high-order harmonics of intense laser field for attosecond pulse production

 a,  b,  b,  c
a Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Vavilova 38, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation
b Lomonosov Moscow State University, Vorobevy Gory, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation
c Federal Research Center A.V. Gaponov-Grekhov Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Ulyanova 46, Nizhny Novgorod, 603000, Russian Federation

This review presents the current state of research on the generation and use of subfemtosecond(or attosecond, 1 as =1018s) ultraviolet and X-ray pulses. Emission of attosecond pulses is closely related to the generation of high-order harmonics of the laser field: the interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with matter causes the generation of high-order harmonics, whose highest orders range from dozens to thousands and which produce attosecond pulses when they are phase-locked in a sufficiently broad spectral region. As two ways of attosecond pulse generation, the interaction of an intense laser field with a gaseous medium and with the edge of a solid state plasma is discussed. The theory of the microscopic high-frequency response of a gaseous medium to an intense low-frequency laser field is presented together with numerical results based on the solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for an atom in the external field. The review describes the methodology for calculating the macroscopic response and analyzes the phase-matching in high-order harmonic generation. For the generation of the coherent XUV radiation at the edge of a dense plasma, different generation scenarios are discussed, a simple model is proposed, and a comparison of model predictions with numerical results from particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations is given.

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Fulltext is also available at DOI: 10.3367/UFNe.2015.12.037670
Keywords: attosecond pulses, high-order harmonic generation, interaction of intense laser fields with matter, phase matching, time-dependent Schrцdinger equation, dense laser plasma, particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations
PACS: 42.65.Ky, 42.65.Re, 52.38.−r (all)
DOI: 10.3367/UFNe.2015.12.037670
Citation: Strelkov V V, Platonenko V T, Sterzhantov A F, Ryabikin M Yu "Attosecond electromagnetic pulses: generation, measurement, and application. Generation of high-order harmonics of intense laser field for attosecond pulse production" Phys. Usp. 59 425–445 (2016)
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Received: 7th, September 2015, revised: 1st, December 2015, 23rd, December 2015

Оригинал: Стрелков В В, Платоненко В Т, Стержантов А Ф, Рябикин М Ю «Аттосекундные электромагнитные импульсы: генерация, измерение и применение. Генерация высоких гармоник интенсивного лазерного излучения для получения аттосекундных импульсов» УФН 186 449–470 (2016); DOI: 10.3367/UFNr.2015.12.037670

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