Attosecond electromagnetic pulses: generation, measurement, and application. Generation of high-order harmonics of intense laser field for attosecond pulse production
M.Yu. Ryabikinc aProkhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Vavilova 38, Moscow, 119942, Russian Federation bLomonosov Moscow State University, Vorobevy Gory, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation cFederal Research Center Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Ulyanova 46, Nizhny Novgorod, 603000, Russian Federation
This review presents the current state of research on the generation and use of subfemtosecond(or attosecond, 1 as =1018s) ultraviolet and X-ray pulses. Emission of attosecond pulses is closely related to the generation of high-order harmonics of the laser field: the interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with matter causes the generation of high-order harmonics, whose highest orders range from dozens to thousands and which produce attosecond pulses when they are phase-locked in a sufficiently broad spectral region. As two ways of attosecond pulse generation, the interaction of an intense laser field with a gaseous medium and with the edge of a solid state plasma is discussed. The theory of the microscopic high-frequency response of a gaseous medium to an intense low-frequency laser field is presented together with numerical results based on the solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for an atom in the external field. The review describes the methodology for calculating the macroscopic response and analyzes the phase-matching in high-order harmonic generation. For the generation of the coherent XUV radiation at the edge of a dense plasma, different generation scenarios are discussed, a simple model is proposed, and a comparison of model predictions with numerical results from particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations is given.
Keywords: attosecond pulses, high-order harmonic generation, interaction of intense laser fields with matter, phase matching, time-dependent Schrцdinger equation, dense laser plasma, particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations PACS:42.65.Ky, 42.65.Re, 52.38.−r (all) DOI:10.3367/UFNe.2015.12.037670 URL: https://ufn.ru/en/articles/2016/5/a/ Citation: Strelkov V V, Platonenko V T, Sterzhantov A F, Ryabikin M Yu "Attosecond electromagnetic pulses: generation, measurement, and application. Generation of high-order harmonics of intense laser field for attosecond pulse production" Phys. Usp.59 425–445 (2016)