Directions in the studies of laser-cooled lanthanides and their possible applications in precision spectroscopy and quantum optics are considered. We discuss the specific electronic structure of hollow atoms providing their promising applications in optical frequency standards and quantum simulators based on atomic spin interactions in optical lattices. The features of laser cooling of atoms, optical lattice trapping techniques and clock transition spectroscopy using narrowband lasers are described by the example of thulium atoms.
Keywords: laser cooling, lanthanides, optical frequency standards, ultrastable laser systems, quantum simulations PACS:32.30.Jc, 37.10.De, 37.10.Gh (all) DOI:10.3367/UFNe.0186.201602h.0176 URL: https://ufn.ru/en/articles/2016/2/h/ Citation: Vishnyakova G A, Golovizin A A, Kalganova E S, Sorokin V N, Sukachev D D, Tregubov D O, Khabarova K Yu, Kolachevsky N N "Ultracold lanthanides: from optical clocks to quantum simulators" Phys. Usp.59 168–173 (2016)