Production of exotic states of matter with the use of X-rays generated by focusing a petawatt laser pulse onto a solid target
The possibility is discussed of using optical laser radiation with a flux density of > 1020 W cm−2 to create an ultraintense X-ray source capable of producing polychromatic radiation with a power flux density of 1019 W cm−2 or higher. The X-ray radiation of so high an intensity permits not only transforming a condensed target to a plasma state but also obtaining an exotic plasma state with a high density of hollow ions. Currently still not in wide use and available in only a few laboratories in the world, lasers with a flux density of about 1020 W cm−2 are more compact and lower-cost compared to free-electron X-ray lasers or lasers used for the indirect heating of fusion targets. The source under discussion can produce by far higher X-ray intensities than plasma X-ray lasers of a similar scale.