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2011

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April

  

Reviews of topical problems


Kinetic methods for measuring the temperature of clusters and nanoparticles in molecular beams


Institute of Spectroscopy, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Fizicheskaya 5, Troitsk, Moscow, 108840, Russian Federation

The temperature (internal energy) of clusters and nanoparticles is an important physical parameter which affects many of their properties and the character of processes they are involved in. At the same time, determining the temperature of free clusters and nanoparticles in molecular beams is a rather complicated problem because the temperature of small particles depends on their size. In this paper, recently developed kinetic methods for measuring the temperature of clusters and nanoparticles in molecular beams are reviewed. The definition of temperature in the present context is given, and how the temperature affects the properties of and the processes involving the particles is discussed. The temperature behavior of clusters and nanoparticles near a phase transition point is analyzed. Early methods for measuring the temperature of large clusters are briefly described. It is shown that, compared to other methods, new kinetic methods are more universal and applicable for determining the temperature of clusters and nanoparticles of practically any size and composition. The future development and applications of these methods are outlined.

Text can be downloaded in Russian. English translation is available on IOP Science.
PACS: 07.77.Gx, 36.40.−c, 36.40.Ei, 42.62.Fi, 81.07.Nb, 82.50.Hp (all)
DOI: 10.3367/UFNe.0181.201104b.0365
URL: https://ufn.ru/en/articles/2011/4/b/
Citation: Makarov G N "Kinetic methods for measuring the temperature of clusters and nanoparticles in molecular beams" Phys. Usp. 54 351–370 (2011)
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Received: 21st, April 2010, revised: 17th, June 2010, 7th, July 2010

Оригинал: Макаров Г Н «Кинетические методы определения температуры кластеров и наночастиц в молекулярных пучках» УФН 181 365–387 (2011); DOI: 10.3367/UFNr.0181.201104b.0365

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