Diamagnetic (Condon) domains
National Research Centre ‘Kurchatov Institute’, pl. akad. Kurchatova 1, Moscow, 123182, Russian Federation
This paper is the first systematic review of experimental research on diamagnetic (aka Condon) domains that form in nonmagnetic metals at low temperatures due to the development of Landau levels. A variety of methods were used to study the domains. Muon spectroscopy studies showed such domains to be present in all metals studied, pointing to the universal nature of the phenomenon. For silver, the domain structure size as measured by Hall microsensors turned out to be an order of magnitude larger than expected. In beryllium it is found that domains do not come to the surface but rather remain in the bulk of the crystal. The magnetostriction of beryllium during domain formation is measured. It is shown that magnetization current in a domain wall is entirely due to the charge density gradient in the wall, due to the lattice being deformed oppositely in neighboring domains. It is observed for the first time that the de Haas — van Alphen effect exhibits hysteresis at the transition to the domain state, and this fact is used for the experimental determination of the phase diagrams for the domain states of silver and beryllium.