Reviews of topical problems

Gravitational radiation of systems and the role of their force field

Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky prosp. 53, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation

Gravitational radiation (GR) from compact relativistic systems with a known energy-momentum tensor (EMT) and GR from two masses elliptically orbiting their common center of inertia are considered. In the ultrarelativistic limit, the GR spectrum of a charge rotating in a uniform magnetic field, a Coulomb field, a magnetic moment field, and a combination of the last two fields differs by a factor of 4πGm2Γ2 / e2 (Γ being of the order of the charge Lorentz factor) from its electromagnetic radiation (EMR) spectrum. This factor is independent of the radiation frequency but does depend on the wave vector direction and the way the field behaves outside of the orbit. For a plane wave external field, the proportionality between the gravitational and electromagnetic radiation spectra is exact, whatever the velocity of the charge. Qualitative estimates of Γ are given for a charge moving ultrarelativistically in an arbitrary field, showing that it is of the order of the ratio of the nonlocal and local source contributions to the GR. The localization of external forces near the orbit violates the proportionality of the spectra and reduces GR by about the Lorentz factor squared. The GR spectrum of a rotating relativistic string with masses at the ends is given, and it is shown that the contributions by the masses and string are of the same order of magnitude. In the nonrelativistic limit, the harmonics of GR spectra behave universally for all the rotating systems considered. A trajectory method is developed for calculating the GR spectrum. In this method, the spatial (and hence polarization) components of the conserved EMT are calculated in the long wavelength approximation from the time component of the EMTs of the constituent masses of the system. Using this method, the GR spectrum of two masses moving in elliptic orbits about their common center of inertia is calculated, as are the relativistic corrections to it.

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Fulltext is also available at DOI: 10.3367/UFNe.0180.201011b.1135
PACS: 04.20.−q, 04.30.−w, 41.60.−m (all)
DOI: 10.3367/UFNe.0180.201011b.1135
Citation: Nikishov A I, Ritus V I "Gravitational radiation of systems and the role of their force field" Phys. Usp. 53 1093–1122 (2010)
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Оригинал: Никишов А И, Ритус В И «Гравитационное излучение систем и роль их силового поля» УФН 180 1135–1165 (2010); DOI: 10.3367/UFNr.0180.201011b.1135

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