L.G. Shabel’nikov Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High Purity Materials, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region, Chernogolovka, 142432, Russian Federation
X-ray refractive optics has made rapid strides to a large degree due to the work of Russian scientists, and has now become one of the most rapidly advancing areas in modern physical optics. This review outlines the results of investigation of refractive devices and analysis of their properties. The conception of planar lenses made of silicon and other materials is set forth. We discuss the applications of refractive lenses to the transformation of X-ray images, photonic crystal research, and the development of focusing devices in high-energy X-ray telescopes.