Cosmic ray astrophysics (history and general review)
Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky prosp. 53, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation
The history of the discovery and investigation of cosmic rays prior to the advent of the cosmic ray astrophysics is presented. Some data about cosmic rays near the Earth and in the Universe are given. The main part of cosmic rays observed near the Earth is generated in our Galaxy by supernova explosions. The most important problem yet to be solved in cosmic ray astrophysics is the origin of cosmic rays of superhigh energy.