V.B. Efimov Institute of Solid State Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademika Osip'yana str. 2, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region, 142432, Russian Federation
Helium at pressures below 25 atm remains liquid at temperatures down to absolute zero, when the number of excitations in the medium and the concentration of the normal component become negligible. This makes it possible to use superfluid helium at low temperatures as a model medium for study the formation and decay of a turbulent system. The description and modeling of the behavior of vortices in superfluid helium at temperatures below 0.1 K, when the amount of the normal component becomes negligible, is greatly simplified due to the quantization of the flow of the superfluid component, and all hydrodynamic properties of helium associated with its rotational motion are determined by quantum vortices. The article reviews the experimental methods for the excitation and detection of quantum turbulence, presented in experimental works of recent years, discusses the features of the vortice generation by various methods and at different temperatures of the superfluid, the dynamics of change in the concentration of vortices during the generation and decay of the vortex system, difference in behavior of quantum vortices under Kolmogorov’s and Vinen’s turbulence.