Astrophysical objects with extreme energy release: observations and theory
Ioffe Institute, ul. Polytekhnicheskaya 26, St. Petersburg, 194021, Russian Federation
Supernovae release extreme amounts of energy and produce major chemical elements in the galaxies. They are extraordinary phenomena which lead to emission of neutrinos, gravitational waves and broad spectra of electromagnetic radiation; accelerate particles up to ultra-relativistic energies. Observations of supernovae have led to discovery of the accelerated expansion of the Universe and introduction of the "dark energy" concept. Recent observations and theoretical models have revealed diverse supernova-related phenomena, the diversity resulting from variation both in the energy release mechanisms and in the properties of the circumstellar matter. Supernova remnants and, in particular, gamma-ray bursts originating from compact stellar remnants, are among the main objects of space research programs all over the world. We review the results of supernova and gamma-ray bursts observations as well as physical models capable to explain the acceleration of non-thermal particles up to ultra-relativistic energies and amplification of fluctuating magnetic fields in supernova shells. We also consider the prospects of testing these models via observations with orbital and ground-based telescopes.