Almost all the methods of determining refraction are based on the theory created by Newton. Studies performed by Newton, Euler, Oriani, Bernoulli, et al. involved the determination of the geometrical path of a light ray. However, the refraction of light propagating in the atmospheric surface layer cannot be calculated reliably because of numerous conditions determining the propagation of light in the layer. Modern methods for determining the refraction of light providing optical measurements with an instrumental accuracy of the devices used are analyzed.
Keywords: temperature gradient, air refractive index gradient, air refractive index pulsations, angle of incidence of a laser beam, unstable temperature stratification of the atmosphere, statistical characteristics of a wave, turbulence, wind velocity, light curve radius, refractive index, atmospheric surface layer PACS:42.15.−i, 42.25.Bs, 42.68.Bz (all) DOI:10.3367/UFNe.2021.11.039100 URL: https://ufn.ru/en/articles/2022/8/f/ 001099034300006 2-s2.0-85182876738 Citation: Savinykh V P, Vasyutinsky I Yu, Dement’ev D V "Vertical refraction of light in the atmospheric surface layer: traditional problems of determining refraction and new technical achievements" Phys. Usp.65 864–879 (2022)