Methodological notes

Extraction of quantum randomness

 a,   a, b, c, d
a Academy of Cryptography of the Russian Federation, PO Box 100, Moscow, 119331, Russian Federation
b Osipyan Institute of Solid State Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademika Osip'yana str. 2, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region, 142432, Russian Federation
c Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1, build. 52, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation
d Quantum Technology Center of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1, build. 35, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation

The nature of randomness and constructive and provable methods to obtain (extract) it from observations of physical systems are discussed. True randomness, which exists only in a microcosm in the quantum-mechanical description of physical systems, is a fundamental property of quantum systems, which manifests itself in the outcomes of measurements upon quantum systems. The classical description of physical systems does not include any randomness and, in fact, it is introduced 'manually' by means of uncertainty — unknown initial conditions. Methods to really 'feel' quantum randomness are discussed using the example of a quantum device, a random number generator. Issues related to the 'proof' of randomness — testing of numerical sequences — are reviewed, and logical constructions that underlie such testing are analyzed. A mathematical apparatus is used to this end, which does not require special academic training, so standard knowledge from university courses on quantum mechanics and probability theory is sufficient. The authors aim to track a unified logical path from the origin of randomness in the quantum domain to its extraction, physical implementation, and testing.

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Fulltext is also available at DOI: 10.3367/UFNe.2020.11.038890
Keywords: quantum random number generators, randomness extraction
PACS: 03.67.Dd, 42.50.Ex (all)
DOI: 10.3367/UFNe.2020.11.038890
Citation: Arbekov I M, Molotkov S N "Extraction of quantum randomness" Phys. Usp. 64 617–634 (2021)
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Received: 15th, May 2020, revised: 28th, October 2020, 29th, November 2020

Оригинал: Арбеков И М, Молотков С Н «Об экстракции квантовой случайности» УФН 191 651–669 (2021); DOI: 10.3367/UFNr.2020.11.038890

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