Reviews of topical problems

High-energy ball milling of nonstoichiometric compounds

Institute of Solid State Chemistry, Urals Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Pervomayskaya 91, Ekaterinburg, 620219, Russian Federation

The preparation of nanocrystalline powders of nonstoichiometric compounds such as carbides and oxides by high-energy milling is considered. The modern state of milling models for nonstoichiometric compounds is described. The influence of nonstoichiometry on the particle size of the produced nanopowders is discussed. The model dependences of the size of nanopowder particles on the duration of milling and the composition of nonstoichiometric compounds are compared with the literature experimental results on the milling of nonstoichiometric carbides and oxides. Diffraction methods for the certification of nanopowders according to the size of the nanoparticles, the magnitude of microstrains, and the uniformity of the microstructure are considered in detail. The importance of taking into account the anisotropy of microstrains in milled nanopowders is shown.

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Keywords: high-energy ball milling, nanopowders, nonstoichiometry, carbides, oxides, nanoparticle size, anisotropy of microstrains, X-ray and neutron diffraction
PACS: 61.46.−w, 61.66.Fn, 61.82.Rx, 81.07.Wx (all)
DOI: 10.3367/UFNe.2019.06.038581
Citation: Gusev A I "High-energy ball milling of nonstoichiometric compounds" Phys. Usp. 63 342–364 (2020)
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Received: 25th, March 2019, revised: 13th, June 2019, 18th, June 2019

Оригинал: Гусев А И «Высокоэнергетический размол нестехиометрических соединений» УФН 190 371–395 (2020); DOI: 10.3367/UFNr.2019.06.038581

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