Instruments and methods of investigation

Electrohydrodynamic emitters of ion beams

  a,   b, c, §  d, e, f
a Raith GmbH, Konrad-Adenauer-Allee 8, Dortmund, 44263, Germany
b Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, prosp. akad. Lavrenteva 11, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation
c Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation
d Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campus de Campolide, Lisboa, 1099-085, Portugal
e Ryazan State Radio Engineering University named after V.F. Utkin, Gagarina Street 59/1, Ryazan, 390005, Russian Federation
f Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China

We discuss physical processes underlying the generation of ion beams with high emission current density in electrohydrodynamic (EHD) emitters based on liquid metals and alloys and with low-temperature ion liquids. We consider EHD effects that influence the emission of ions (ion production mechanisms) and the kinetics of ion interactions in high-density beams. We analyze the factors determining the emission zone size, sustainability of emission at high and low currents, generation of clusters, increase in energy scattering, decrease in brightness, and other features of ion beams. We consider the specific design features of EHD emitters and the problems of practically ensuring their stable operation. Discussed in detail are modern application areas for ion sources with EHD emitters, including technological installations for ion-beam lithography, micro- and nanopatterning, ion microscopes and tools for local mass spectrometry of secondary ions, Ând systems to control and neutralize the potential of spacecraft and electrostatic rocket engines (microthrusters). We analyze prospects for further development of EHD emitters themselves and instruments based on them.

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Fulltext is also available at DOI: 10.3367/UFNe.2020.09.038845
Keywords: electrodynamics, ion source, liquid metal, low-temperature ion liquid, nanopatterning, mass spectrometry of secondary ions, ion-beam lithography, liquid metals and alloys, nanotechnology
PACS: 29.25.Ni, 41.75.−i, 81.16.Nd (all)
DOI: 10.3367/UFNe.2020.09.038845
Citation: Mazarov P, Dudnikov V G, Tolstoguzov A B "Electrohydrodynamic emitters of ion beams" Phys. Usp. 63 1219–1255 (2020)
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Received: 14th, December 2019, revised: 13th, July 2020, 29th, September 2020

Оригинал: Мажаров П А, Дудников В Г, Толстогузов А Б «Электрогидродинамические источники ионных пучков» УФН 190 1293–1333 (2020); DOI: 10.3367/UFNr.2020.09.038845

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