Straintronics: a new trend in micro- and nanoelectronics and material science
a E.K. Zavoiskii Kazan Physicotechnical Institute, Kazan Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Sibirskii trakt 10/7, Kazan, 420029, Russian Federation
b Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Vavilova 38, Moscow, 119942, Russian Federation
c Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky prosp. 53, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation
d Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Institutskii per. 9, Dolgoprudnyi, Moscow Region, 141700, Russian Federation
e Lomonosov Moscow State University, Department of Physics, Vorobevy gory, Moscow, 119992, Russian Federation
f Moscow Technological University, prosp. Vernadskogo 78, Moscow, 119454, Russian Federation
The term 'straintronics' refers to a new research direction in condensed matter physics in which strain engineering methods and strain-induced physical effects in solids are used to develop next generation devices for information, sensor and energy-saving technologies. This paper reviews the basic ideas of straintronics, examines its underlying effects, highlights its advantages over conventional electronics and identifies the problems it faces and fundamental constraints it is subject to. Special attention is given to the straintronics of magnetic and magnetoelectric materials as the most promising direction for radically reducing computational energy consumption. Specific examples are presented of how the principles of straintronics are applied practically in information and energy saving technologies as well as in sensor and microwave engineering.