This paper reviews the features of far-from-equilibrium critical behavior of macroscopic systems and present current methods of describing them using model statistical systems such as the three-dimensional Ising model and the two-dimensional XY-model. The paper examines the critical relaxation of homogeneous and structurally disordered systems subject to abnormally strong fluctuation effects involved in ordering processes in solids at second order phase transitions. Interest in such systems is due to the aging properties and fluctuation-dissipation theorem violations predicted for and observed in systems slowly evolving from a nonequilibrium initial state. It is shown that these features of nonequilibrium behavior show up in the magnetic properties of magnetic superlattices consisting of alternating nanoscale-thick magnetic and nonmagnetic layers and can be observed not only near the film's critical ferromagnetic ordering temperature Tc, but also over the wide temperature range T ≤ Tc.
Keywords: phase transitions and critical phenomena, nonequilibrium behavior, systems with slow dynamics, disordered systems, aging effects, fluctuation—dissipation ratio, multilayered magnetic structures, Monte Carlo simulations PACS:64.60.ae, 64.60.Cn, 64.60.Ht (all) DOI:10.3367/UFNe.2017.02.038067 URL: https://ufn.ru/en/articles/2017/8/b/ Citation: Prudnikov V V, Prudnikov P V, Mamonova M V "Nonequilibrium critical behavior of model statistical systems and methods for the description of its features" Phys. Usp.60 762–797 (2017)