Material surface ablation produced by ultrashort laser pulses
a Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky prosp. 53, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation
b National Research Nuclear University ‘MEPhI’, Kashirskoe shosse 31, Moscow, 115409, Russian Federation
c St. Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, ul. Sablinskaya 14, St. Petersburg, 197101, Russian Federation
d Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Vavilova 38, Moscow, 119942, Russian Federation
Different basic mechanisms of material surface ablation produced by ultrashort laser pulses are considered in succession with increasing the supplied laser energy density: the low-threshold ultrafast plasma expansion at the electron dynamics stage, spallative melt ablation, and explosive hydrodynamic supercritical fluid expansion, including the related sequence of basic relaxation processes.