Issues

 / 

2014

 / 

August

  

Reviews of topical problems


Atmospheres and radiating surfaces of neutron stars

 a, b, c
a Ioffe Institute, ul. Polytekhnicheskaya 26, St. Petersburg, 194021, Russian Federation
b Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon (CNRS, UMR 5574); Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon; Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1; Observatoire de Lyon, 9 avenue Charles André, Saint-Genis-Laval, 69230, France
c The Central Astronomical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences at Pulkovo, Pulkovskoe shosse 65/1, St. Petersburg, 196140, Russian Federation

The early 21st century witnesses a dramatic rise in the study of thermal radiation of neutron stars. Modern space telescopes have provided a wealth of valuable information which, when properly interpreted, can elucidate the physics of superdense matter in the interior of these stars. This interpretation is necessarily based on the theory of formation of neutron star thermal spectra, which, in turn, is based on plasma physics and on the understanding of radiative processes in stellar photospheres. In this paper, the current status of the theory is reviewed with particular emphasis on neutron stars with strong magnetic fields. In addition to the conventional deep (semi-infinite) atmospheres, radiative condensed surfaces of neutron stars and ’thin’ (finite) atmospheres are considered.

Fulltext is available at IOP
PACS: 97.10.Ex, 97.10.Ld, 97.60.Jd (all)
DOI: 10.3367/UFNe.0184.201408a.0793
URL: https://ufn.ru/en/articles/2014/8/a/
Citation: Potekhin A Y "Atmospheres and radiating surfaces of neutron stars" Phys. Usp. 57 735–770 (2014)
BibTexBibNote ® (generic)BibNote ® (RIS)MedlineRefWorks

Received: 19th, September 2013, revised: 10th, November 2013, 12th, November 2013

Оригинал: Потехин А Ю «Атмосферы и излучающие поверхности нейтронных звёзд» УФН 184 793–832 (2014); DOI: 10.3367/UFNr.0184.201408a.0793

References (401) ↓ Cited by (61) Similar articles (20)

  1. Haensel P, Potekhin A Y, Yakovlev D G Neutron Stars 1: Equation Of State And Structure (New York: Springer, 2007)
  2. Fortov V E Usp. Fiz. Nauk 179 653 (2009); Fortov V E Phys. Usp. 52 615 (2009)
  3. Potekhin A Yu Usp. Fiz. Nauk 180 1279 (2010); Potekhin A Y Phys. Usp. 53 1235 (2010)
  4. Haensel P, Zdunik J L, Douchin F Astron. Astrophys. 385 301 (2002)
  5. Demorest P B et al. Nature 467 1081 (2010)
  6. Antoniadis J et al. Science 340 448 (2013)
  7. Zhang W, Woosley S E, Heger A Astrophys. J. 679 639 (2008)
  8. Pejcha O, Thompson T A, Kochanek C S Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 424 1570 (2012)
  9. Kramer M, Stairs I H Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 46 541 (2008)
  10. Lattimer J M Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 62 485 (2012)
  11. Gnedin Yu N, Sunyaev R A Astron. Astrophys. 36 379 (1974)
  12. Trümper J et al. Astrophys. J. 219 L105 (1978)
  13. Coburn W et al. Astrophys. J. 580 394 (2002)
  14. Rodes-Roca J J et al. Astron. Astrophys. 508 395 (2009)
  15. Pottschmidt K et al. AIP Conf. Proc. 1427 60 (2012)
  16. Boldin P A, Tsygankov S S, Lutovinov A A Pis’ma Astron. Zhurn. 39 423 (2013); Boldin P A, Tsygankov S S, Lutovinov A A Astron. Lett. 39 375 (2013)
  17. Baushev A N, Bisnovatyi-Kogan G S Astron. Zhurn. 76 283 (1999); Baushev A N, Bisnovatyi-Kogan G S Astron. Rep. 43 241 (1999)
  18. Araya-Góchez R A, Harding A K Astrophys. J. 544 1067 (2000)
  19. Terada Y et al. Astrophys. J. 648 L139 (2006)
  20. Becker P A et al. Astron. Astrophys. 544 A123 (2012)
  21. Poutanen J et al. Astrophys. J. 777 115 (2013)
  22. Nishimura O Astrophys. J. 781 30 (2014)
  23. Deutsch A J Ann. D’Astrophys. 18 1 (1955)
  24. Manchester R N, Taylor J H Pulsars (San Francisco: W.H. Freeman, 1977); Manchester R, Teilor Dzh Pul’sary (Per. s angl. pod red. A D Kuz’mina) (M.: Mir, 1980)
  25. Beskin V S Usp. Fiz. Nauk 169 1169 (1999); Beskin V S Phys. Usp. 42 1071 (1999)
  26. Michel F C Adv. Space Res. 33 542 (2004)
  27. Spitkovsky A High-Energy Emission From Pulsars And Their Systems (Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings, Eds N Rea, D F Torres) (Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2011) p. 139
  28. Beskin V S, Istomin Ya N, Filippov A A Usp. Fiz. Nauk 183 179 (2013); Beskin V S, Istomin Ya N, Philippov A A Phys. Usp. 56 164 (2013)
  29. Pétri J Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 424 605 (2012)
  30. Tchekhovskoy A, Spitkovsky A, Li J G Mon. Not. R. Astron Soc. 435 L1 (2013)
  31. Timokhin A N, Arons J Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 429 20 (2013)
  32. Beskin V S, Gurevich A V, Istomin Ya N Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 85 401 (1983); Beskin V S, Gurevich A V, Istomin Ya N Sov. Phys. JETP 58 235 (1983)
  33. Beskin V S, Gurevich A V, Istomin Ya N Physics Of The Pulsar Magnetosphere (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1993)
  34. Spitkovsky A Astrophys. J. 648 51 (2006)
  35. Manchester R N et al. Astron. J. 129 1993 (2005); ATNF Pulsar Catalogue, http://www.atnf.csiro.au/research/pulsar/psrcat/
  36. Bisnovatyi-Kogan G S Usp. Fiz. Nauk 176 59 (2006); Bisnovatyi-Kogan G S Phys. Usp. 49 53 (2006)
  37. Lorimer D R Living Rev. Relativity 11 8 (2008); Lorimer D R http://www.livingreviews.org/lrr-2008-8
  38. Duncan R C, Thompson C Astrophys. J. 392 L9 (1992)
  39. Popov S B, Prokhorov M E Astrofizika Odinochnykh Neitronnykh Zvezd: Radiotikhie Neitronnye Zvezdy i Magnitary (M.: GAISh MGU, 2002); Popov S B, Prokhorov M E astro-ph/0205298
  40. Mereghetti S Astron. Astrophys. Rev. 15 225 (2008)
  41. Mereghetti S Braz. J. Phys. 43 356 (2013)
  42. Rea N Neutron Stars And Pulsars: Challenges And Opportunities After 80 Years (Proc. IAU Symp.) Vol. 291 (Ed. J van Leeuwen) (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2013) p. 291
  43. Dall’Osso S, Shore S N, Stella L Mon. Not. R. Aston. Soc. 398 1869 (2009)
  44. Ardeljan N V, Bisnovatyi-Kogan G S, Moiseenko S G Mon. Not. R. Aston. Soc. 359 333 (2005)
  45. Geppert U, Küker M, Page D Astron. Astrophys. 457 937 (2006)
  46. Pérez-Azorín J F, Miralles J A, Pons J A Astron. Astrophys. 451 1009 (2006)
  47. Akgün T et al. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 433 2445 (2013)
  48. Gavriil F P, Kaspi V M, Woods P M Nature 419 142 (2002)
  49. Kaspi V M Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107 7147 (2010)
  50. Rea N et al. Astrophys. J. (2014), in press
  51. Rea N et al. Astrophys. J. 770 65 (2013)
  52. Kaspi V M, Roberts M S E, Harding A K Compact Stellar X-Ray Sources (Cambridge Astrophysics Series) Vol. 39 (Eds W Lewin, M van der Klis) (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006) p. 279
  53. Marsden D et al. Astrophys. J. 550 397 (2001)
  54. Ertan Ü et al. Astrophys. Space Sci. 308 73 (2007)
  55. Trümper J et al. Astrophys. J. 764 49 (2013)
  56. Bisnovatyi-Kogan G S, Ikhsanov N R Astron. Zhurn. 91 275 (2014); Bisnovatyi-Kogan G S, Ikhsanov N R Astron. Rep. 58 217 (2014)
  57. Malov I F, Machabeli G Z Anomal’nye Pul’sary (M.: Nauka, 2009)
  58. Malov I F Astron. Zhurn. 87 1004 (2010); Malov I F Astron. Rep. 54 925 (2010)
  59. Boshkayev K et al. Astron. Astrophys. 555 A151 (2013)
  60. Chandrasekhar S, Fermi E Astrophys. J. 118 116 (1953)
  61. Lai D, Shapiro E E Astrophys. J. 383 745 (1991)
  62. Bocquet M et al. Astron. Astrophys. 301 757 (1995)
  63. Cardall C, Prakash M, Lattimer J M Astrophys. J. 554 322 (2001)
  64. Kiuchi K, Kotake K Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 385 1327 (2008)
  65. Frieben J, Rezzolla L Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427 3406 (2012)
  66. Shabad A E, Usov V V Phys. Rev. D 73 125021 (2006)
  67. Pechenick K R, Ftaclas C, Cohen J M Astrophys. J. 274 846 (1983)
  68. Page D Astrophys. J. 442 273 (1995)
  69. Pavlov G G, Zavlin V E Astrophys. J. 529 1011 (2000)
  70. Beloborodov A M Astrophys. J. 566 L85 (2002)
  71. Zheleznyakov V V Izluchenie v Astrofizicheskoi Plazme (M.: Yanus-K, 1997); Zheleznyakov V V Radiation In Astrophysical Plasmas (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1996)
  72. Poutanen J, Gierliński M Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 343 1301 (2003)
  73. Poutanen J, Beloborodov A M Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 373 836 (2006)
  74. Ginzburg V L, Ozernoi L M Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 47 1030 (1964); Ginzburg V L, Ozernoi L M Sov. Phys. JETP 20 689 (1965)
  75. Muslimov A G, Tsygan A I Astron. Zhurn. 63 958 (1986); Muslimov A G, Tsygan A I Sov. Astron. 30 567 (1986)
  76. Pétri J Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 433 986 (2013)
  77. Wilms J, Allen A, McCray R Astron. J. 542 914 (2000)
  78. Romanova M M et al. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 421 63 (2012)
  79. La Palombara N et al. Astron. Astrophys. 539 A82 (2012)
  80. Harding A K, Lai D Rep. Prog. Phys. 69 2631 (2006)
  81. Medin Z, Lai D Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 406 1379 (2010)
  82. Beloborodov A M Astrophys. J. 762 13 (2013)
  83. Burwitz V et al. Astron. Astrophys. 399 1109 (2003)
  84. Potekhin A Y et al. Astrophys. J. 594 404 (2003)
  85. Pons J, Miralles J A, Geppert U Astron. Astrophys. 496 207 (2009)
  86. Lorenz C P, Ravenhall D G, Pethick C J Phys. Rev. Lett. 70 379 (1993)
  87. Pethick C J, Potekhin A Y Phys. Lett. B 427 7 (1998)
  88. Pearson J M, Goriely S, Chamel N Phys. Rev. C 83 065810 (2011)
  89. Potekhin A Y, Chabrier G Phys. Rev. E 62 8554 (2000)
  90. Potekhin A Y, Chabrier G Astron. Astrophys. 550 A43 (2013)
  91. Alcock C, Illarionov A Astrophys. J. 235 534 (1980)
  92. Hameury J M, Heyvaerts J, Bonazzola S Astron. Astrophys. 121 259 (1983)
  93. Brown E F, Bildsten L, Chang P Astrophys. J. 574 920 (2002)
  94. Chang P, Bildsten L, Arras P Astrophys. J. 723 719 (2010)
  95. Beznogov M V, Yakovlev D G Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 161101 (2013)
  96. Gudmundsson E H, Pethick C J, Epstein R I Astrophys. J. 272 286 (1983)
  97. Yakovlev D G, Pethick C J Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 42 169 (2004)
  98. Ventura J, Potekhin A Y The Neutron Star — Black Hole Connection. Proc. Of The NATO Advanced Study Institute, Elounda, Crete, Greece, 7 - 18 June 1999 (NATO Science Series C) Vol. 567 (Eds C Kouveliotou, E P J van den Heuvel, J Ventura) (Dordrecht: Kluwer Acad. Publ., 2001) p. 393
  99. Sobolev V V Kurs Teoreticheskoi Astrofiziki 2-e izd. (M.: Nauka, 1975); Sobolev V V Course In Theoretical Astrophysics (Springfield: NASA, 1969)
  100. Shibanov Yu A et al. The Many Faces Of Neutron Stars (NATO Science Series C) Vol. 515 (Eds R Buccheri, J van Paradijs, M A Alpar) (Dordrecht: Kluwer Acad. Publ., 1998) p. 553
  101. Tsai Y-S Rev. Mod. Phys. 46 815 (1974)
  102. Bogdanov S, Rybicki G B, Grindlay J E Astrophys. J. 670 668 (2007)
  103. Rosseland S Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 84 525 (1924)
  104. Mihalas D Stellar Atmospheres 2nd ed. (San Francicso: W.H. Freeman, 1978); Mikhalas D Zvezdnye Atmosfery Vol. 1, 2 (Per. s angl. pod red. V V Ivanova) (M.: Mir, 1982)
  105. Potekhin A Y, Chabrier G, Yakovlev D G Astrophys. Space Sci. 308 353 (2007); corrected version, Potekhin A Y, Chabrier G, Yakovlev D G astro-ph/0611014, v3
  106. Kotov Yu D, Kel’ner S R, Bogovalov S V Pis’ma Astron. Zhurn. 12 402 (1986); Kotov Yu D, Kel’ner S R, Bogovalov S V Sov. Astron. Lett. 12 168 (1986)
  107. Shklovskii I S Sverkhnovye Zvezdy i Svyazannye s Nimi Problemy 2-e izd. (M.: Nauka, 1976); Shklovskii I S Supernovae (London: Wiley, 1968)
  108. Shvartsman V F Astron. Zhurn. 48 438 (1971); Shvartsman V F Sov. Astron. 15 342 (1971)
  109. Blaes O M et al. Astrophys. J. 199 634 (1992)
  110. Lipunov V M Astrofizika Neitronnykh Zvezd (M.: Nauka, 1987); Lipunov V M Astrophysics Of Neutron Stars (Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1992)
  111. Chiu H-Y, Salpeter E E Phys. Rev. Lett. 12 413 (1964)
  112. Chang P, Bildsten L Astrophys. J. 585 464 (2003)
  113. Rosen L C Astrophys. Space Sci. 1 372 (1968)
  114. Jones P Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 184 807 (1978)
  115. Turolla R, Zane S, Drake J J Astrophys. J. 603 265 (2004)
  116. Zavlin V E Neutron Stars And Pulsars (Astrophysics and Space Science Library) Vol. 357 (Ed. W Becker) (Berlin: Springer, 2009) p. 181
  117. Haensel P, Zdunik J L Astron. Astrophys. 227 431 (1990)
  118. Haensel P, Zdunik J L Astron. Astrophys. 480 459 (2008)
  119. Bisnovatyi-Kogan G S, Chechetkin V M Astrophys. Space Sci. 26 25 (1974)
  120. Bisnovatyi-Kogan G S, Chechetkin V M Usp. Fiz. Nauk 127 263 (1979); Bisnovatyi-Kogan G S, Chechetkin V M Sov. Phys. Usp. 22 89 (1979)
  121. Yakovlev D G et al. Astron. Astrophys. 417 169 (2004)
  122. Levenfish K P, Haensel P Astrophys. Space Sci. 308 457 (2007)
  123. Ho W C G Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 418 L99 (2011)
  124. Wijnands R, Degenaar N, Page D Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 432 2366 (2013)
  125. Brown E F, Bildsten L, Rutledge R E Astrophys. J. 504 L95 (1998)
  126. Syunyaev R A i dr. Pis’ma Astron. Zhurn. 16 136 (1990); Syunyaev R et al. Sov. Astron. Lett. 16 59 (1990)
  127. Wijnands R et al. Astrophys. J. 560 L159 (2001)
  128. Shternin P S et al. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 382 L43 (2007)
  129. Jones P B Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 351 956 (2004)
  130. Cackett E M et al. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 372 479 (2006)
  131. Cackett E M et al. Astrophys. J. 722 L137 (2010)
  132. Cackett E M et al. Astrophys. J. 687 L87 (2008)
  133. Cackett E M et al. Astrophys. J. 774 131 (2013)
  134. Díaz Trigo M et al. Astron. Astrophys. 528 A150 (2011)
  135. Degenaar N, Wijnands R, Miller J M Astrophys. J. 767 L31 (2013)
  136. Fridriksson J K et al. Astrophys. J. 736 162 (2011)
  137. Page D, Reddy S Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 241102 (2013)
  138. Turlione A, Aguilera D N, Pons J A arXiv:1309.3909
  139. Degenaar N et al. Astrophys. J. 775 48 (2013)
  140. Heinke C O et al. Astrophys. J. 691 1035 (2009)
  141. Coti Zelati F et al. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 438 2634 (2014)
  142. Cackett E M et al. Astrophys. J. 720 1325 (2010)
  143. Degenaar N, Wijnands R Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 422 581 (2012)
  144. Rutledge R E et al. Astrophys. J. 577 346 (2002)
  145. Becker W, Trümper J Astron. Astrophys. 326 682 (1997)
  146. Ng C-Y et al. Astrophys. J. 761 65 (2012)
  147. Shapiro S L, Teukolsky S A Black Holes, White Dwarfs, And Neutron Stars: The Physics Of Compact Objects (New York: Wiley, 1983); Shapiro S, T’yukolski S Chernye Dyry, Belye Karliki i Neitronnye Zvezdy Vol. 2 (Per. s angl. pod red. Ya A Smorodinskogo) (M.: Mir, 1985)
  148. Van Paradijs J Nature 274 650 (1978)
  149. Strohmayer T, Bildsten L Compact Stellar X-Ray Sources (Cambridge Astrophysics Series) Vol. 39 (Eds W Lewin, M van der Klis) (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006) p. 113
  150. Hoffman J A, Marshall H L, Lewin W H G Nature 271 630 (1978)
  151. Suleimanov V F et al. Astrophys. J. 742 122 (2011)
  152. Basko M M, Sunyaev R A Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 175 395 (1976)
  153. Lapidus I I, Syunyaev R A, Titarchuk L G Astrofizika 23 503 (1985); Lapidus I I, Syunyaev R A, Titarchuk L G Astrophysics 23 663 (1985)
  154. Inogamov N A, Syunyaev R A Pis’ma Astron. Zhurn. 25 323 (1999); Inogamov N A, Sunyaev R A Astron. Lett. 25 269 (1999)
  155. Inogamov N A, Syunyaev R A Pis’ma Astron. Zhurn. 36 896 (2010); Inogamov N A, Sunyaev R A Astron. Lett. 36 848 (2010)
  156. Gilfanov M, Revnivtsev M, Molkov S Astron. Astrophys. 410 217 (2003)
  157. Revnivtsev M G, Suleimanov V F, Poutanen J Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 434 2355 (2013)
  158. Malofeev V M, Malov O I, Teplykh D A Asrophys. Space Sci. 308 211 (2007)
  159. Teplykh D et al. AIP Conf. Proc. 1357 201 (2011)
  160. De Luca A AIP Conf. Proc. 983 311 (2008)
  161. Harding A K Frontiers Phys. 8 679 (2013)
  162. Haberl F Astrophys. Space Sci. 308 181 (2007)
  163. Turolla R Neutron Stars And Pulsars (Astrophysics and Space Science Library) Vol. 357 (Ed. W Becker) (Berlin: Springer, 2009) p. 141
  164. Kondratiev V I et al. Astrophys. J. 702 692 (2009); Kondratiev V I et al. Astrophys. J. 708 910 (2010), Erratum
  165. Kaplan D L, van Kerkwijk M H Astrophys. J. 740 L30 (2011)
  166. Halpern J P, Gotthelf E V Astrophys. J. 709 436 (2010)
  167. Gotthelf E V, Halpern J P, Alford J Astrophys. J. 765 58 (2013)
  168. Shabaltas N, Lai D Astrophys. J. 748 148 (2012)
  169. Rutledge R E, Fox D B, Shevchuk A H Astrophys. J. 672 1137 (2008)
  170. Halpern J P, Bogdanov S, Gotthelf E V Astrophys. J. 778 120 (2013)
  171. Sanwal D et al. Astrophys. J. 574 L61 (2002)
  172. Bignami G F et al. Nature 423 725 (2003)
  173. Mori K, Chonko J C, Hailey, C J Astrophys. J. 631 1082 (2005)
  174. Haberl F et al. Astron. Astrophys. 420 635 (2004)
  175. Hambaryan V et al. Astron. Astrophys. 497 L9 (2009)
  176. Schwope A D et al. Astrophys. Space Sci. 308 619 (2007)
  177. Cropper M et al. Astrophys. Space Sci. 308 161 (2007)
  178. Kaplan D, van Kerkwijk M Astrophys. J. 692 L62 (2009)
  179. Schwope A D et al. Astron. Astrophys. 499 267 (2009)
  180. van Kerkwijk M H et al. Astrophys. J. 608 432 (2004)
  181. Haberl F et al. Astron. Astrophys. 419 1077 (2004)
  182. Walter F M, Wolk S J, Neuhäuser R Nature 379 233 (1996)
  183. Burwitz V et al. Astron. Astrophys. 399 1109 (2001)
  184. Tiengo A et al. Nature 500 312 (2013)
  185. Strohmayer T E, Ibrahim A I Astrophys. J. 537 L111 (2000)
  186. Ibrahim A I et al. Astrophys. J. 574 L51 (2002)
  187. Kargaltsev O et al. Science 337 946 (2012)
  188. Zavlin V E, Pavlov G G, Shibanov Yu A Astron. Astrophys. 315 141 (1996)
  189. Ginzburg V L Rasprostranenie Elektromagnitnykh Voln v Plazme 2-e izd. (M.: Nauka, 1967); Ginzburg V L The Propagation Of Electromagnetic Waves In Plasmas 2nd ed. (Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1970)
  190. Donati J-F, Landstreet J D Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 47 333 (2009)
  191. Ivanov V V Perenos Izlucheniya i Spektry Nebesnykh Tel (M.: Nauka, 1969); Ivanov V V Transfer Of Radiation In Spectral Lines (Washington, DC: National Bureau of Standards, 1973)
  192. Chandrasekhar S Radiative Transfer (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1950); Chandrasekar S Perenos Luchistoi Energii (Per. s angl. pod red. E S Kuznetsova) (M.: IL, 1953)
  193. Haakonsen C B et al. Astrophys. J. 749 52 (2012)
  194. Suleimanov V, Poutanen J, Werner K Astron. Astrophys. 545 A120 (2012)
  195. Paczyński B Astrophys. J. 267 315 (1983)
  196. Ishimaru A Wave Propagation And Scattering In Random Media Vol. 1 Single Scattering And Transport Theory (New York: Academic Press, 1978); Isimaru A Rasprostranenie i Rasseyanie Voln v Sluchaino-neodnorodnykh Sredakh. T. 1. Odnokratnoe Rasseyanie i Teoriya Perenosa (Per. s angl. pod red. V I Tatarskogo) (M.: Mir, 1981)
  197. Kompaneets A S Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 31 876 (1956); Kompaneets A S Sov. Phys. JETP 4 730 (1957)
  198. Zavlin V E, Shibanov Yu A Astron. Zhurn. 68 999 (1991); Zavlin V E, Shibanov Yu A Sov. Astron. 35 499 (1991)
  199. Grebenev S A, Syunyaev R A Pis’ma Astron. Zhurn. 28 175 (2002); Grebenev S A, Sunyaev R A Astron. Lett. 28 150 (2002)
  200. Suleimanov V F, Poutanen J Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 369 2036 (2006)
  201. Suleimanov V F, Poutanen J, Werner K Astron. Astrophys. 527 A139 (2011)
  202. Carson T R Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 14 95 (1976)
  203. Rogers F J, Iglesias C A Space Sci. Rev. 85 61 (1998)
  204. Iglesias C A, Rogers F J Astrophys. J. 464 943 (1996)
  205. Seaton M J Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 362 L1 (2005)
  206. Paxton B et al. Astrophys. J. Suppl. 208 4 (2013); MESA, http://mesa.sourceforge.net/
  207. Romani R W Astrophys. J. 313 718 (1987)
  208. Gänsicke B T, Braje T M, Romani R W Astron. Astrophys. 386 1001 (2002)
  209. Heinke C O et al. Astrophys. J. 644 1090 (2006)
  210. Arnaud K A ASP Conf. Ser. 101 17 (1996); XSPEC: An X-Ray Spectral Fitting Package, http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/xanadu/xspec/
  211. Suleimanov V F et al. Astrophys. J. Suppl. 210 13 (2014)
  212. Rajagopal M, Romani R W Astrophys. J. 461 327 (1996)
  213. Pons J A et al. Astrophys. J. 564 981 (2002)
  214. Ho W C G, Heinke C O Nature 462 71 (2009)
  215. London R A, Howard W M, Taam R E Astrophys. J. 287 L27 (1984)
  216. London R A, Taam R E, Howard W M Astrophys. J. 306 170 (1986)
  217. Lapidus I I, Syunyaev R A, Titarchuk L G Pis’ma Astron. Zhurn. 12 918 (1986); Lapidus I I, Syunyaev R A, Titarchuk L G Sov. Astron. Lett. 12 383 (1986)
  218. Kaminker A D et al. Astron. Astrophys. 220 117 (1989)
  219. Zamfir M, Cumming A, Galloway D K Astrophys. J. 749 69 (2012)
  220. Heger A et al. Astrophys. J. 671 L141 (2007)
  221. Özel F, Baym G, Güver T Phys. Rev. D 82 101301(R) (2010)
  222. Özel F Rep. Prog. Phys. 76 016901 (2013)
  223. Güver T, Özel F Astrophys. J. 765 L1 (2013)
  224. Werner K, Deetjen J Pulsar Astronomy - 2000 And Beyond (ASP Conference Series) Vol. 202 (Eds M Kramer, N Wex, R Wielebinski) (San Francisco: ASP, 2000) p. 623
  225. Vainshtein L A, Sobel’man I I, Yukov E A Vozbuzhdenie Atomov i Ushirenie Spektral’nykh Linii (M.: Nauka, 1979); Sobelman I I, Vainshtein L A, Yukov E A Excitation Of Atoms And Broadening Of Spectral Lines (Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1981)
  226. Potekhin A Y, Chabrier G, Chabrier D Phys. Rev. E 65 036412 (2002)
  227. Suleimanov V F, Werner K Astron. Astrophys. 466 661 (2007)
  228. Rauch T, Suleimanov V, Werner K Astron. Astrophys. 490 1127 (2008)
  229. Drake J J et al. Astrophys. J. 572 996 (2002)
  230. van Kerkwijk M H, Kulkarni S R Astron. Astrophys. 380 221 (2001)
  231. Gaensler B M, Slane P O Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 44 17 (2006)
  232. Tiengo A, Mereghetti S Astrophys. J. 657 L101 (2007)
  233. Heinke C O, Ho W C G Astrophys. J. 719 L167 (2010)
  234. Page D et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 081101 (2011)
  235. Shternin P S et al. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 412 L108 (2011)
  236. Posselt B et al. Astrophys. J. 779 186 (2013)
  237. Klochkov D et al. Astron. Astrophys. 556 A41 (2013)
  238. Rutledge R E et al. Astrophys. J. 514 945 (1999)
  239. Rutledge R E et al. Astrophys. J. 580 413 (2002)
  240. Heinke C O et al. Astrophys. J. 598 501 (2003)
  241. Guillot S et al. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 392 665 (2009)
  242. Guillot S et al. Astrophys. J. 772 7 (2013)
  243. Servillat M et al. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 423 1556 (2012)
  244. Catuneanu A et al. Astrophys. J. 764 145 (2013)
  245. Cadeau C et al. Astrophys. J. 654 458 (2007)
  246. Garasev M A, Derishev E V, Kocharovskii Vl V Izv. Vuzov. Radiofizika 54 335 (2011); Garasyov M A, Derishev E V, Kocharovsky Vl V Radiophys. Quantum Electron. 54 304 (2011)
  247. Durant M et al. Astrophys. J. 746 6 (2012)
  248. Zavlin V E, Pavlov G G Astron. Astrophys. 329 583 (1998)
  249. Zavlin V E et al. Astrophys. J. 569 894 (2002)
  250. Bogdanov S, Grindlay J E, Rybicki G B Astrophys. J. 689 407 (2008)
  251. Bogdanov S, Grindlay J E, Rybicki G B Astrophys. J. 648 L55 (2006)
  252. Bogdanov S Astrophys. J. 762 96 (2013)
  253. Verbiest J P W et al. Astrophys. J. 679 675 (2008)
  254. Deller A T et al. Astrophys. J. 685 L67 (2008)
  255. Landau L Z. Phys. 64 629 (1930); Landau L D Sobranie Trudov Vol. 1 (M.: Nauka, 1969) p. 47
  256. Sokolov A A, Ternov I M Relyativistskii Elektron (M.: Nauka, 1974); Sokolov A A, Ternov I M Radiation From Relativistic Electrons (New York: American Institute of Physics, 1986)
  257. Armstrong B H, Nicholls R W Emission, Absorption, And Transfer Of Radiation In Heated Atmospheres (Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1972)
  258. Potekhin A Y, Pavlov G G Astrophys. J. 483 414 (1997)
  259. Ventura J, Nagel W, Mészáros P Astrophys. J. 233 L125 (1979)
  260. Ventura J Phys. Rev. D 19 1684 (1979)
  261. Kaminker A D, Pavlov G G, Shibanov Yu A Astrophys. Space Sci. 86 249 (1982)
  262. Mészáros P High-Energy Radiation From Magnetized Neutron Stars (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1992)
  263. Pavlov G G, Shibanov Yu A, Yakovlev D G Astrophys. Space Sci. 73 33 (1980)
  264. Suleimanov V F, Pavlov G G, Werner K Astrophys. J. 751 15 (2012)
  265. Pavlov G G, Panov A N Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 71 572 (1976); Pavlov G G, Panov A N Sov. Phys. JETP 44 300 (1976)
  266. Potekhin A Y, Chabrier G Astrophys. J. 585 955 (2003)
  267. Potekhin A Y Astron. Astrophys. 518 A24 (2010)
  268. Potekhin A Y, Lai D Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 376 793 (2007)
  269. Pavlov G G et al. The Lives Of The Neutron Stars (NATO ASI Series C) Vol. 450 (Eds M A Alpar, Ü Kiziloǧlu, J van Paradijs) (Dordrecht: Kluwer Acad. Publ., 1995) p. 71
  270. Cohen R, Lodenquai J, Ruderman M Phys. Rev. Lett. 25 467 (1970)
  271. Loudon R Am. J. Phys. 27 649 (1959)
  272. Hasegawa H, Howard R E J. Phys. Chem. Solids 21 179 (1961)
  273. Garstang R H Rep. Prog. Phys. 40 105 (1977)
  274. Ruder H et al. Atoms In Strong Magnetic Fields (Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1994)
  275. Kadomtsev B B Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 58 1765 (1970); Kadomtsev B B Sov. Phys. JETP 31 945 (1970)
  276. Lieb E H, Solovej J P, Yngvason J Phys. Rev. Lett. 69 749 (1992)
  277. Haines L K, Roberts D H Am. J. Phys. 37 1145 (1969)
  278. Kadomtsev B B, Kudryavtsev V S Pis’ma ZhETF 13 61 (1971); Kadomtsev B B, Kudryavtsev V S JETP Lett. 13 42 (1971)
  279. Simola J, Virtamo J J. Phys. B At. Mol. Phys. 11 3309 (1978)
  280. Rosner W et al. J. Phys. B At. Mol. Phys. 17 29 (1984)
  281. Forster H et al. J. Phys. B At. Mol. Phys. 17 1301 (1984)
  282. Potekhin A Y, Pavlov G G, Ventura J Astron. Astrophys. 317 618 (1997)
  283. Potekhin A Y J. Phys. B At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 31 49 (1998)
  284. Popov V S, Karnakov B M Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 141 5 (2012); Popov V S, Karnakov B M JETP 114 1 (2012)
  285. Surmelian G L, O’Connel R F Astrophys. J. 190 741 (1974)
  286. Wunner G et al. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 198 769 (1982)
  287. Al-Hujaj O-A, Schmelcher P Phys. Rev. A 70 023411 (2004)
  288. Jones P B Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 216 503 (1985)
  289. Relovsky B M, Ruder H Phys. Rev. A 53 4068 (1996)
  290. Braun M Phys. Rev. A 65 033415 (2002)
  291. Jones M D, Ortiz G, Ceperley D M Phys. Rev. E 55 6202 (1997)
  292. Bücheler S et al. Phys. Rev. A 76 032501 (2007)
  293. Fok V A Nachala Kvantovoi Mekhaniki 2-e izd. (M.: Nauka, 1976); Fock V A Fundamentals Of Quantum Mechanics (Moscow: Mir Publ., 1978)
  294. Froese Fischer C The Hartree - Fock Method For Atoms: A Numerical Approach (New York: Wiley, 1977)
  295. Miller M C, Neuhauser D Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 253 107 (1991)
  296. Engel D, Klews M, Wunner G Comput. Phys. Commun. 180 302 (2009)
  297. Medin Z, Lai D, Potekhin A Y Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 383 161 (2008)
  298. Ivanov M V Optika Spektrosk. 70 259 (1991); Ivanov M V Opt. Spectrosc. 70 148 (1991); Ivanov M V J. Phys. B At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 27 4513 (1994)
  299. Ivanov M V, Schmelcher P Phys. Rev. A 61 022505 (2000)
  300. Schimeczek C, Engel D, Wunner G Comput. Phys. Commun. 183 1502 (2012)
  301. Mori K, Hailey C J Astrophys. J. 564 914 (2002)
  302. Schmelcher P, Detmer T, Cederbaum L S Phys. Rev. A 64 023410 (2001)
  303. Lai D Rev. Mod. Phys. 73 629 (2001)
  304. Detmer T, Schmelcher P, Cederbaum L S Phys. Rev. A 57 1767 (1998)
  305. Kubo A J. Phys. Chem. A 111 5572 (2007)
  306. Kappes U, Schmelcher P Phys. Rev. A 53 3869 (1996)
  307. Khersonskii V K Astron. Zhurn. 64 1233 (1987); Khersonskii V K Sov. Astron. 31 646 (1987)
  308. Mori K, Heyl J Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 376 895 (2007)
  309. Turbiner A V Astrophys. Space Sci. 308 267 (2007)
  310. Turbiner A V, López Vieyra J C, Guevara N L Phys. Rev. A 81 042503 (2010)
  311. Medin Z, Lai D Phys. Rev. A 74 062507 (2006)
  312. Lindgren K A U, Virtamo J T J. Phys. B At. Mol. Phys. 12 3465 (1979)
  313. Chen Z, Goldman S P Phys. Rev. A 45 1722 (1992)
  314. Nakashima H, Nakatsuji H Astrophys. J. 725 528 (2010)
  315. Heisenberg W, Euler H Z. Phys. 98 714 (1936)
  316. Schubert C Nucl. Phys. B 585 407 (2000)
  317. Shabad A E, Usov V V Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 180403 (2007)
  318. Shabad A E, Usov V V Phys. Rev. D 77 025001 (2008)
  319. Machet B, Vysotsky M I Phys. Rev. D 83 025022 (2011)
  320. Al-Hujaj O-A, Schmelcher P Phys. Rev. A 67 023403 (2003)
  321. Johnson B R, Hirschfelder J O, Yang K-H Rev. Mod. Phys. 55 109 (1983)
  322. Baye D, Vincke M Phys. Rev. A 42 391 (1990)
  323. Gor’kov L P, Dzyaloshinskii I E Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 53 717 (1967); Gor’kov L P, Dzyaloshinskii I E Sov. Phys. JETP 26 449 (1968)
  324. Burkova L A i dr. Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 71 526 (1976); Burkova L A et al. Sov. Phys. JETP 44 276 (1976)
  325. Ipatova I P, Maslov A Yu, Subashiev A V Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 87 1804 (1984); Ipatova I P, Maslov A Yu, Subashiev A V Sov. Phys. JETP 60 1037 (1984)
  326. Vincke M, Le Dourneuf M, Baye D J. Phys. B At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 25 2787 (1992)
  327. Potekhin A Y J. Phys. B At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 27 1073 (1994)
  328. Vincke M, Baye D J. Phys. B At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 21 2407 (1988)
  329. Pavlov G G, Mészáros P Astrophys. J. 416 752 (1993)
  330. Bezchastnov V G, Pavlov G G, Ventura J Phys. Rev. A 58 180 (1998)
  331. Pavlov G G, Bezchastnov V G Astrophys. J. 635 L61 (2005)
  332. Däppen W Rev. Mexicana Astron. Astrofis. 23 141 (1992)
  333. Rogers F J Phys. Plasmas 7 51 (2000)
  334. Rogers F J, Swenson F J, Iglesias C A Astrophys. J. 456 902 (1996)
  335. Landau L D, Lifshits E M Statisticheskaya Fizika Vol. 1 (M.: Nauka, 1976); Landau L D, Lifshitz E M Statistical Physics Vol. 1 (Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1980)
  336. Van Leeuwen H-J J. Physique Radium VI 2 361 (1921)
  337. Fermi E Z. Phys. 26 54 (1924)
  338. Khersonskii V K Astron. Zhurn. 64 433 (1987); Khersonskii V K Sov. Astron. 31 225 (1987)
  339. Rajagopal M, Romani R, Miller M C Astrophys. J. 479 347 (1997)
  340. Hummer D G, Mihalas D Astrophys. J. 331 794 (1988)
  341. Inglis D R, Teller E Astrophys. J. 90 439 (1939)
  342. Ecker G, Kröll W Phys. Fluids 6 62 (1963)
  343. Rogers F J Astrophys. J. 310 723 (1986)
  344. Stehlé C, Jacquemot S Astron. Astrophys. 271 348 (1993)
  345. Potekhin A Y Phys. Plasmas 3 4156 (1996)
  346. Miller M C Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 255 129 (1992)
  347. Mori K, Hailey C J Astrophys. J. 648 1139 (2006)
  348. Mori K, Ho W C G Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 377 905 (2007)
  349. Potekhin A Y, Chabrier G, Shibanov Yu A Phys. Rev. E 60 2193 (1999); Potekhin A Y, Chabrier G, Shibanov Yu A Phys. Rev. E 63 019901 (2000), Erratum
  350. Potekhin A Y, Chabrier G Astrophys. J. 600 317 (2004)
  351. Callen J D Fundamentals Of Plasma Physics (Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin, 2006); Callen J D http://homepages.cae.wisc.edu/~callen/book.html
  352. Ruderman M Phys. Rev. Lett. 27 1306 (1971)
  353. Medin Z, Lai D Phys. Rev. A 74 062508 (2006)
  354. Ebeling W, Norman G J. Stat. Phys. 110 861 (2003)
  355. Salpeter E E Astrophys. J. 134 669 (1961)
  356. Rögnvaldsson Ö E et al. Astrophys. J. 416 276 (1993)
  357. Thorolfsson A et al. Astrophys. J. 502 847 (1998)
  358. Lai D, Salpeter E E Astrophys. J. 491 270 (1997)
  359. Medin Z, Lai D Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 382 1833 (2007)
  360. Gnedin Yu N, Pavlov G G Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 65 1806 (1973); Gnedin Yu N, Pavlov G G Sov. Phys. JETP 38 903 (1974)
  361. Nagel W Astrophys. J. 236 904 (1980)
  362. Shibanov Yu A, Zavlin V E Pis’ma Astron. Zhurn. 21 5 (1995); Shibanov Yu A, Zavlin V E Astron Lett. 21 3 (1995)
  363. Bulik T, Pavlov G G Astrophys. J. 469 373 (1996)
  364. Potekhin A Y et al. Astrophys. J. 612 1034 (2004)
  365. Novick R et al. Astrophys. J. 215 L117 (1977)
  366. Gnedin Yu N, Pavlov G G, Shibanov Yu A Pis’ma Astron. Zhurn. 4 214 (1978); Gnedin Yu N, Pavlov G G, Shibanov Yu A Sov. Astron. Lett. 4 117 (1978)
  367. Pavlov G G, Gnedin Yu N Sov. Sci. Rev. E Astrophys. Space Phys. 3 197 (1984)
  368. Adler S L Ann. Physics 67 599 (1971)
  369. Heyl J S, Hernquist L Phys. Rev. D 55 2449 (1997)
  370. Kohri K, Yamada S Phys. Rev. D 65 043006 (2002)
  371. Shaviv N J, Heyl J S, Lithwick Y Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 306 333 (1999)
  372. Heyl J S, Shaviv N J Phys. Rev. D 66 023002 (2002)
  373. Van Adelsberg M, Perna R Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 399 1523 (2009)
  374. Shafranov V D Voprosy Teorii Plazmy Vol. 3 (Pod red. M A Leontovicha) (M.: Gosatomizdat, 1963) p. 3; Shafranov V D Reviews Of Plasma Physics Vol. 3 (Ed. M A Leontovich) (New York: Consultants Bureau, 1963) p. 1
  375. Ho W C G, Lai D Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 338 233 (2003)
  376. Shibanov Yu A et al. Astron. Astrophys. 266 313 (1992)
  377. Zavlin V E et al. Astron. Astrophys. 297 441 (1995)
  378. Van Adelsberg M, Lai D Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 373 1495 (2006)
  379. Zane S et al. Astrophys. J. 560 384 (2001)
  380. Lai D, Ho W C G Astrophys. J. 566 373 (2002)
  381. Ho W C G, Potekhin A Y, Chabrier G Astrophys. J. Suppl. 178 102 (2008)
  382. Ho W C G Magnetic Fields Throughout Stellar Evolution (Proc. IAU Symp.) Vol. 302 (Eds M Jardine, P Petit, H C Spruit) (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2014) p. 302; Ho W C G arXiv:1311.5583
  383. Itoh N Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 173 1P (1975)
  384. Lenzen R, Trümper J Nature 271 216 (1978)
  385. Brinkmann W Astron. Astrophys. 82 352 (1980)
  386. Van Adelsberg M et al. Astrophys. J. 628 902 (2005)
  387. Pérez-Azorin J F, Miralles J A, Pons J A Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 433 275 (2005)
  388. Potekhin A Y et al. Astron. Astrophys. 546 A121 (2012)
  389. Motch C, Zavlin V E, Haberl F Astron. Astrophys. 408 323 (2003)
  390. Ho W C G et al. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 375 821 (2007)
  391. Suleimanov V, Potekhin A Y, Werner K Astron. Astrophys. 500 891 (2009)
  392. Suleimanov V et al. Astron. Astrophys. 522 A111 (2010)
  393. Chang P, Bildsten L Astrophys. J. 605 830 (2004)
  394. Ho W C G Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 380 71 (2007)
  395. Kaplan D L, Van Kerkwijk M H, Anderson J Astrophys. J. 571 447 (2002)
  396. Walter F M, Lattimer J M Astrophys. J. 576 L145 (2002)
  397. Van Kerkwijk M H, Kaplan D L Astrophys. Space Sci. 308 191 (2007)
  398. Kaplan D L, Van Kerkwijk M H, Anderson J Astrophys. J. 660 1428 (2007)
  399. Walter F M et al. Astrophys. J. 724 669 (2010)
  400. Van Kerkwijk M H, Kaplan D L Astrophys. J. 673 L163 (2008)
  401. Hambaryan V et al. Astron. Astrophys. 534 A74 (2011)

© 1918–2021 Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk
Email: ufn@ufn.ru Editorial office contacts About the journal Terms and conditions