E.P. Sheshina aMoscow Institute of Physics and Technology (National Research University), Institutskii per. 9, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, 141701, Russian Federation bKotel'nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Mokhovaya 11, kor. 7, Moscow, 125009, Russian Federation cVekshinsky State Research Institute of Vacuum Technology, Nagornyi proezd 7, Moscow, 117105, Russian Federation
The principles and designs of X-ray tubes are discussed. Historical highlights and the current status of X-ray technology are reviewed and prospects for its improvement are outlined. A comparison of the properties of X-ray tubes with those of hot cathodes and field-emission cathodes is given.