Rayleigh convective instability in the presence of phase transitions of water vapor. The formation of large-scale eddies and cloud structures
M.V. Kalashnika,b,c aFederal State Budget Organization, Research and Production Association Taifun, Lenina av. 82, Obninsk, Kaluga Region, 249020, Russian Federation bA M Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyzhevskii per. 3, Moscow, 109017, Russian Federation cObninsk Institute for Nuclear Power Engineering, Obninsk, Russian Federation
Convective motions in moist saturated air are accompanied by the release of latent heat of condensation. Taking into account this effect, the problem of convective instability of a moist saturated air layer, which generalizes the formulation of the classical Rayleigh problem, is considered. The analytical solution demonstrating the fundamental difference between moist convection and Rayleigh convection is obtained. At the loss of stability in the two-dimensional case solitary convective rolls or spatially periodic chains of rollers with localized areas of upward motion evolve. In the case of axial symmetry the growth of solitary convective vortices with circulation characteristic of tropical cyclones (hurricanes) and the scale of tornado scale to the scale of tropical cyclones is possible.