G.V. Shpatakovskaya M.V. Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miusskaya pl. 4, Moscow, 125047, Russian Federation
The modern semiclassical method developed over the past few decades and used for describing the properties of the electronic subsystems of matter is reviewed, and its application to quantum physics problems is illustrated. The method involves the Thomas—Fermi statistical model and allows an extension by including additive corrections that take the shell structure of the electronic spectrum and other physical effects into account. Applying the method to the study of matter and finite systems allowed the following, inter alia: (1) an analysis of the total electron energy oscillations as a function of the number of particles in a 1D quantum dot; (2) a description of spatial oscillations of the electron density in atoms and atomic clusters; (3) a description of the stepwise temperature dependence of the ionicity and ionization energy in a Boltzmann plasma; (4) an evaluation of free ion ionization potentials; (5) an interpretation and evaluation of the difference in the patterns of oscillations in the mass spectra of metal clusters.