Rigorous results of nonequilibrium statistical physics and their experimental verification
L.P. Pitaevskii a, b
a Kapitza Institute of Physical Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Kosygina 2, Moscow, 117334, Russian Federation
b Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trento and BDC Center, Povo, Trento, I-38050, Italy
Rigorous relations of nonequilibrium statistical physics are discussed. An arbitrary system brought into a strongly nonequilibrium state by an external time-dependent impact is considered. Based on the Hamiltonian formalism of classical mechanics, the Bochkov—Kuzovlev equality, the Jarzynski equality, and Crooks reversal relations valid for fluctuations in the work done on a system are derived. Verification of these equalities in mechanical experiments with a torsion pendulum and biological objects (folded ribonucleic acids) is described.