The femtosecond dynamics of electrons in metals
V.P. Zhukov a
E.V. Chulkov b
a Institute of Solid State Chemistry, Urals Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Pervomayskaya 91, Ekaterinburg, 620219, Russian Federation
b Departamento de Fizica de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, UPV/EHU, Apdo 1072, San Sebastian, Basque Country, 20080, Spain
The current state of research in the femtosecond dynamics of low-energy excited electronic states in metals is reviewed. Some of the major approaches to the experimental study of the decay of excited states are discussed, including time-resolved two-photon photoemission spectroscopy, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, and spintronic techniques. Semiempirical and first-principle theoretical approaches to electron dynamics are presented. Results of studies on the dynamics of electron excitations in some simple, noble, paramagnetic, and ferromagnetic metals are analyzed.