The nature, kinetics, and ultimate storage capacity of hydrogen sorption by carbon nanostructures
G.V. Kurdyumov Institite of Metal Science and Physics, State Research Centre of the Russian Federation, I.P. Bardin Central Research Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy, 2-ya Baumanskaya ul. 9/23, Moscow, 105005, Russian Federation
The review covers the present state of studies of the urgent open questions concerning the nature, kinetics, and limit values of hydrogen sorption by carbon nanostructures. These questions are related to the key issues in the problem of building a hydrogen electrical automobile. Considered are the thermodynamic and diffusion characteristics and the micromechanisms of the processes of chemical and physical sorption of hydrogen by graphite and related carbon nanomaterials, and also the various methodological aspects of studying and optimizing such hydrogen adsorbents. The experimental and theoretical prerequisites and prospects for developing a ’superadsorbent’ (≥ 10 mass %) for storing hydrogen onboard an automobile are also discussed.