Cladding modes of optical fibers: properties and applications
O.V. Ivanov a
Yu.V. Gulyaev b
a Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky prosp. 53, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation
b Kotel'nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Mokhovaya 11, kor. 7, Moscow, 125009, Russian Federation
One of the new methods of fiber optics uses cladding modes for controlling propagation of radiation in optical fibers. This paper reviews the results of studies on the propagation, excitation, and interaction of cladding modes in optical fibers. The resonance between core and cladding modes excited by means of fiber Bragg gratings, including tilted ones, is analyzed. Propagation of cladding modes in microstructured fibers is considered. The most frequently used method of exciting cladding modes is described, based on the application of long-period fiber gratings. Examples are presented of long-period gratings used as sensors and gain equalizers for fiber amplifiers, as well as devices for coupling light into and out of optical fibers.