On some problems of physical economics
D.S. Chernavskii a
N.I. Starkov a
A.V. Shcherbakov b, c
a Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky prosp. 53, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation
b Institute of Technology and Processing of Glass Structures, Russian Academy of Sciences, prosp. Stroitelei 1, Saratov, 410044, Russian Federation
c Corporation Kurs, ul. 2-Baumanskaya 9/23, build. 18, Moscow, 107005, Russian Federation
Attempts of designing economics along the lines of natural sciences (in particular, physics) with the use of mathematical modeling are reviewed. This area of research has come to be known as physical economics. Some topical questions of market economics are discussed; specifically, whether the market equilibrium is unique, whether transitions between stationary states are possible, and, if so, how these transitions proceed. By analogy with physics, the apparatus of mathematical modeling is widely used in answering these questions. It is shown that, under given external conditions, a self-sufficient country can be in two stationary, stable states — either in a high-productivity (HP) or in a low-productivity (LP) state. Transitions between them appear to be either an ’economical crisis’ or an ’economical miracle’. It is shown that, for contemporary Russia, the crisis is already over, and the country is now in a stable LP state. Possible transitions to a HP state are discussed. The distributions of social elements over liquid accumulations and incomes are considered. It is shown that, in present-day Russia, these distributions are bimodal, meaning the coexistence of the poor and the wealthy with virtually no middle layer in between. In the tail of the distribution, a very small number of very wealthy people are present.