Formation and growth of carbon nanostructures: fullerenes, nanoparticles, nanotubes and cones
Institute of Spectroscopy, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Fizicheskaya 5, Troitsk, Moscow, 108840, Russian Federation
Various formation models for fullerenes and other carbon nanostructures are reviewed. The formation models considered include fullerene assembling from graphite sheets, ’nautilus’ model, assemblage from clusters, ’fullerene road’, and carbon cluster annealing. The selection of magic fullerenes and fullerene isomers is discussed. Carbon nanoparticle formation mechanisms are analyzed and their relation to fullerene formation mechanisms is outlined. Molecular dynamics simulation of the possible mechanisms of nanoparticle formation is considered and possible growth nuclei and growth mechanisms for single- and multishell nanotubes and for carbon cones are discussed. Some promising techniques intended for fabrication of carbon-containing nanoobjects were described.