From MTR to ITER
National Research Centre ‘Kurchatov Institute’, pl. akad. Kurchatova 1, Moscow, 123182, Russian Federation
In 1950, A D Sakharov and I E Tamm put forward the fundamental idea of magnetic thermal confinement of high-temperature plasma, and proposed the magnetic thermonuclear reactor (MTR) concept. Studies in this direction initiated the mammoth ’Tokamak’ programme. After many years of persistent scientific and engineering efforts in many countries worldwide, the realisation of the thermonuclear reaction has now become available. The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project is currently being developed jointly by the European Community (Euroatom), Russia, USA, and Japan. The aim of the ITER reactor is to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of the peaceful use of nuclear fusion energy. The reactor is based on the Tokamak concept.