Accepted articles

Reviews of topical problems

General relativity effects in precision spin experimental tests of fundamental symmetries

 a, b,  a, b,  c,  d, e, f,  g, h, i
a Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (National Research University), Institutskii per. 9, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, 141701, Russian Federation
b L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region, Russian Federation
c Nuclear Safety Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Bolshaya Tulskaya 52, Moscow, 113191, Russian Federation
d Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna, Moscow Region, Russian Federation
e Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Rd. 509, Lanzhou, 730000, China
f Research Institute for Nuclear Problems Belarusian State University, Bobruiskaya 11, Minsk, 220030, Belarus
g National Research Nuclear University ‘MEPhI’, Kashirskoe shosse 31, Moscow, 115409, Russian Federation
h University "Dubna", Universitetskaya str. 19, Dubna, Moscow Region, 141982, Russian Federation
i Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energy Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 6 Joliot-Curie St., Dubna, Moscow Region, 141980, Russian Federation

A search for the $P$- and $CP(T)$-violating electric dipole moments (EDM) of atoms, particles and nuclei with sensitivity up to $10^{-15}$ in units of the magnetic dipole moments, allowed by all discrete symmetries, is one of the topical problems of modern physics. According to Sakharov, $CP$-violation is one of the three key criteria of the baryogenesis in the generally accepted paradigm of the Big Bang cosmology. All three criteria are supported by the Standard Model, but it fails to describe quantitatively the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe. This is regarded a strong argument in favor of the existence of $CP$-symmetry breaking mechanisms beyond the minimal Standard Model, which can lead to a measurable EDMs of atoms, particles and nuclei. Searches for the EDM via the spin rotation in electric fields are currently underway in dozens of laboratories worldwide. Direct searches for EDM of charged particles and nuclei are possible only in storage rings (COSY, NICA). After successful studies by the JEDI collaboration at the COSY synchrotron, at the forefront in the field is a search for the proton EDM in an electrostatic storage ring with the proton spin frozen at the magic energy with the projected sensitivity $d_p\sim 10^{-29}\,e\cdot$cm. The prototype storage ring PTR is proposed as a precursor to such a dedicated storage ring, with the prospect of the frozen proton spin ring becoming a part of the physics at CERN beyond the Large Hadron Collider program. Following a brief introduction to the $CP$-violation physics and the baryogenesis, the review presents a detailed discussion of significant contributions to the spin dynamics from the terrestrial gravity along with the new effects of Earth's rotation in ultrasensitive searches for the EDM of charged particles and neutrons. Quite remarkably, for the projected sensitivity to the proton EDM, these false EDM effects can by one to two orders of magnitude exceed the signal of the proton EDM, and become comparable to an EDM contribution in experiments with ultracold neutrons. We also discuss the role of a precessing spin as a detector of the axion-like dark matter, and consider applications of the quantum gravitational anomalies to the dense matter hydrodynamics and the spin phenomena in the non-central nuclear collisions.

Keywords: CP-violation, spin, electromagnetic fields, gravitational fields, anomalous magnetic moment, electric dipole moment, Dirac fermions, axion, heavy ion collisions, gravitational anomalies
PACS: 04.20.Cv, 04.62.+v, 03.65.Sq (all)
DOI: 10.3367/UFNe.2021.09.039074
Citation: Vergeles S N, Nikolaev N N, Obukhov Yu N, Silenko A Ya, Teryaev O V "General relativity effects in precision spin experimental tests of fundamental symmetries" Phys. Usp., accepted

Received: 12th, July 2021, revised: 22nd, September 2021, 27th, September 2021

Оригинал: Вергелес С Н, Николаев Н Н, Обухов Ю Н, Силенко А Я, Теряев О В «Эффекты общей теории относительности в прецизионных спиновых экспериментах по проверке фундаментальных симметрий» УФН, принята к публикации; DOI: 10.3367/UFNr.2021.09.039074

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