S.V. Fedorova,b aIoffe Institute, ul. Polytekhnicheskaya 26, St. Petersburg, 194021, Russian Federation bS I Vavilov State Optical Institute, Birzhevaya liniya 12, St. Petersburg, 199034, Russian Federation
Presented is a review of the properties of dissipative solitons of various dimensions and with various topological characteristics in lasers and laser systems with saturable absorption. Unlike conservative solitons, laser solitons are attractors, the increased stability of which is caused by the balance of energy input and output. The topology is determined by their complex internal structure, given by the field of radiation energy flows, and the energy characteristics are an important addition to the topological characteristics. The equation of their dynamics — the generalized Ginzburg-Landau equation - reflects the basic features of open nonlinear systems of various nature. Topological features of solitons expand the range of manifestations of their quantum fluctuations.